Research and Publications


Edwards, C., Edwards, A., Spence, P.R., Shelton, A.K. (In Press). Is That a Bot Running the Social Media Feed? Testing the Differences in Perceptions of Communication Quality for a Human Agent and a Bot Agent on Twitter. Computers in Human Behavior.

Spence, P.R., Lachlan, K.A., Westerman, D.K., & Spates (2013). Where the gates matter less: Ethnicity and perceived source credibility in social media health messages. Howard Journal of Communication, 24 (1), 1-16.

Shelton, A.K. (2013). Introduction to the special issue. Computers in Human Behavior. 29(5), A1-A2.

Shelton, A.K., & Najarian, K.M. (In Press). Introduction to #SocialMedia2. Computers in Human Behavior.

Shelton, A.K., & Skalski, P. (In Press). Blinded by the light: Illuminating the dark side of social network use through content analysis. Computers in Human Behavior.

Spence, P. R., Lachlan, K. A., Spates, S. A., & Lin, X. (2013) Intercultural differences in responses to health messages on social media from spokespeople with varying  levels of ethnic identity. Computers in Human Behavior, 29 (3), 1255-1259.

Spence, P.R., Lachlan, K.A., Shelton, A.K., Lin, X., & Gentile, C. (2013). Exploring the impact of ethnic identity through other-generated cues on perceptions of spokesperson credibility. Computers in Human Behavior. 29 (4), A3-A11.

Quintero Johnson, J., Harrison, K., & Quick, B. (2013). Understanding the effectiveness of the entertainment-education stratgegy: An investigation of how audience involvement, message processing, and message design influence health information recall. Journal of Health Communication, 18 (2), 160-178.

Yilmaz, G., & Pena, J. (In Press). The effects of group membership and interpersonal behaviors on intentions to form subgroups in virtual teams. Communication Research.



Lachlan, K.A., & Shelton, A.K. (2012). Video game violence. In A.K. Goodboy & K. Schultz (Eds.) Introduction to communication studies: Translating communication scholarship into meaningful practice. Kendall/Hunt. (pp.261-267).

McIntyre, J.J., Lachlan, K.A ., & Spence, P.R. (2012). Attending to the future: The role of  learning in crisis response. Journal of Emergency Management, 10 (1), 41-52.

Tamborini, R., Eden, A, Bowman, N., Grizzard, M., & Lachlan, K.A. (2012). The influence of  morality subcultures on the acceptance and appeal of violence. Journal of  Communication, 12 (1), 136-157.

Westerman, D.K., Spence, P.R., & Lachlan, K.A. (2012). Telepresence and exemplification: Does spatial presence impact sleeper effects? Communication Research Reports, 29 (4), 299-309



Lachlan, K.A., & Krcmar, M. (2011). Experiencing telepresence in video games: The role of  telepresence tendencies, game experience, sex, and time spent in play.  Communication Research Reports, 28 (1), 27-31.

Lachlan, K.A., & Spence, P.R. (2011). Crisis communication and the underserved: The case for  partnering with institutions of faith. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 39 (4), 448-451.

McIntyre, J.J., Spence, P.R. & Lachlan, K.A . (2011). Media use and gender differences in  negative psychological responses to a university shooting. Journal of School Violence, 10, 299-313.

Quintero Johnson, J., Sionean, C. S., Scott, A. M. (2011). Exploring the presentation of  news about the HPV vaccine: A content analysis of a representative sample of U.S. newspaper articles. Health Communication, 26, 491-501.

Shelton, A.K. (2011). Two tickets for paradise: Gaming and tourism. In P. Ordoñez de Pablos, R. Tennyson & J. Zhao (Eds.) Global hospitality and tourism management technologies (pp. 91-101). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Spence, P.R. & Lachlan, K.A., & Burke, J. (2011). Differences in crisis knowledge across age,  race, and socioeconomic status during Hurricane Ike: A field test and extension of the  knowledge gap hypothesis. Communication Theory, 21, 261-278.

Zhu, L. (2011). Beyond concept: Conversational English (Vol. 2). Beijing: University Press of People's University.



Burke, J. , Lachlan, K.A., & Spence, P.R. (2010). Crisis preparation, media use, and  information seeking: Patterns across Hurricane Ike evacuees and lessons learned   for emergency communication. Journal of Emergency Management 8 (5), 27-38.

Burke, J., Lachlan, K.A., & Spence, P.R.. (2010). Revisiting the Gulf Coast: Hurricane Ike and  issues  of crisis communication. International Journal of the Humanities, 8, 3-16.

Kagan, D., Madhavi, D., Banks, G., & Lachlan, K.A. (2010). “Universal” and “reliable”  bioavailability claims: Criteria that may increase physician/consumer confidence in  nutritional supplements. Natural Medicine Journal, 2 (1), 1-5.

Lachlan, K.A., & Spence, P.R. (2010). Communicating risks: Examining Hazard and Outrage  in multiple contexts. Risk Analysis, 30 (12), 1872-1886.

Lachlan, K.A., Spence, P.R., & Nelson, L. (2010). Sex differences in negative psychological  responses to crisis news: The case of the I-35W collapse. Communication Research  Reports. 27 (1), 38-48.

Lachlan, K.A., Westerman, D.K., & Spence, P.R. (2010). Disaster news and subsequent  information seeking: Exploring the role of spatial presence and perceptual realism.  Electronic News, 4 (4), 203-217.

Shelton, A.K. (2010). Defining the lines between virtual and real world purchases: Second Life sells, but who’s buying? Computers in Human Behavior, 26 (6), 1223-1227.

Skalski, P., Denny, J, & Shelton, A.K. (2010). Presence and media effects. In C.C. Bracken & P. Skalski (Eds.) Immersed in media: Telepresence in everyday life (pp. 158-180). New York, NY: Routledge.

Skalski, P., Tamborini, R., Shelton, A.K., Buncher, M., & Lindmark, P. (2010). Mapping the road to fun: Natural video game controllers, presence, and enjoyment. New Media & Society, 13, 224-242.

Southwell, B.G., Gilkerson, N., Depue, J, Shelton, A.K., Friedenberg, L. & Koutstaal W (2010). Aging and the faltering validity of recognition-based exposure measurement. Communication Research, 37 (5), 603-619

Spence, P.R., Lachlan, K.A., Nelson, L., & Shelton, A.K. (2010). Age, gender, and information seeking  patterns following an urban bridge collapse. Journal of Emergency Management, 8  (5), 47-54.

Spence, P.R., & Lachlan, K.A. (2010). Disasters, crises, and unique populations: Suggestions  for survey research. New Directions for Evaluation, 126, 95-106.

Spence, P.R., & Lachlan, K.A. (2010). Personal coping behaviors after an urban bridge  collapse. Traumatology, 16 (1), 7-15.



Krcmar, M., & Lachlan, K.A. (2009). Video game play and aggressive outcomes: The role of  length of play and the mechanisms at work. Media Psychology, 12 (3), 249-267.

Lachlan, K.A., & Spence, P.R. (2009). Emergency communication: A framework for planning  and targeting messages. Journal of Emergency Management, 7 (4), 69-72.

Lachlan, K.A., Tamborini, R., Weber, R., Westerman, D., Davis, J., & Skalski, P. (2009). The  spiral of violence: Violent reprisal in professional wrestling and its dispositional and  motivational features. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 53 (1), 56-75. 

Lachlan, K.A., Spence, P.R., &  Griffin, D. (2009). Risk perceptions, race, and Hurricane  Katrina. Howard Journal of Communication, 20 (3). 295-309.

Lachlan, K.A., Spence, P.R., & Seeger, M. (2009). Terrorist attacks and uncertainty  reduction: Media use after September 11th. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and  Political Aggression, 1 (2), 101-110.

Nelson, L.,  Spence, P.R.,  & Lachlan, K.A. (2009). Learning from the media in the aftermath  of a crisis: Findings from the Minneapolis bridge collapse. Electronic News, 3 (4),  176-192.

Quintero Johnson, J. (2009). Media effects on health. CMN 102 course manual (pp. 147-152).  Champaign, IL: Stipes.

Spence, P.R., Lachlan, K.A., & Westerman, D.K. (2009). Presence and crisis news: Exploring  the responses of men and women to tragic stories in different media. Journal of  Applied Communication Research, 37 (3), 239-256.

Spence, P.R., Lachlan, K.A., & McIntyre, J.J. (2009). Serving the public interest in a crisis:  Radio and its unique role. Journal of Radio and Audio Media, 16 (2), 144-159.

Westerman, D.K., Spence, P.R., & Lachlan, K.A. (2009). Presence and the exemplification  effects of bad news. Communication Studies , 60 (5), 542-557.

Zhu, L. (2009). The journey of an organizational communication scholar: An interview with Dr. Patrice Buzzanell. China Media Research, 5 (3) 64-68.