Professor Crystal Schaaf’s Lab

at the University of Massachusetts Boston




Liu, L., Liang, L., Schwartz, M. D., Donnelly, A., Wang, Z., Schaaf, C. B., & Liu, L. (2015). Evaluating the potential of MODIS satellite data to track temporal dynamics of autumn phenology in a temperate mixed forest. Remote Sensing of Environment, 160, 156-165.

Liu, C., Huang, H., Gong, P., Wang, X., Wang, J., Li, W., Li, C., Li, Z. Joint use of ICESat/GLAS and landsat data in land cover classification: A case study in Henan Province, China Article in Scopus, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing Volume 8, Issue 2, 1, February 2015, Pages 511-522.

Hancock, S., Armston, J., Li, Z., Gaulton, R., Lewis, P., Disney, M., ... & Gaston, K. J. (2015). Waveform lidar over vegetation: An evaluation of inversion methods for estimating return energy. Remote Sensing of Environment, 164, 208-224.

Wang, D., Liang, S., He, T., Yu, Y., Schaaf, C., & Wang, Z. (2015). Estimating daily mean land surface albedo from MODIS data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.

Burakowski, E. A., Ollinger, S. V., Lepine, L., Schaaf, C. B., Wang, Z., Dibb, J. E., ... & Martin, M. (2015). Spatial scaling of reflectance and surface albedo over a mixed-use, temperate forest landscape during snow-covered periods.Remote Sensing of Environment, 158, 465-477.

Douglas, E. S., Martel, J., Li, Z., Howe, G., Hewawasam, K., Marshall, R. A., Schaaf, C. L., Cook, T. A., Newnham, G. J., Strahler, A., & Chakrabarti, S. (2015). Finding Leaves in the Forest: The Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidar. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE, 12(4), 776–780.




Kala, J., Evans, J. P., Pitman, A. J., Schaaf, C. B., Decker, M., Carouge, C., Mocko, D., and Sun, Q.: Implementation of a soil albedo scheme in the CABLEv1.4b land surface model and evaluation against MODIS estimates over Australia, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2121-2140, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-2121-2014, 2014.

Ghimire, B., C. A. Williams, J. Masek, F. Gao, Z. Wang, C. Schaaf, and T. He (2014), Global albedo change and radiative cooling from anthropogenic land cover change, 1700 to 2005 based on MODIS, land use harmonization, radiative kernels, and reanalysis, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 9087–9096, doi:10.1002/2014GL061671.

Gao, F., He, T., Wang, Z., Ghimire, B., Shuai, Y., Masek, J., Schaaf, C. & Williams, C. (2014) Multiscale climatological albedo look-up maps derived from moderate resolution imaging spectrocradiometer BRDF/albedo products. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing. 083532-1, Vol. 8.

Pahlevan, N., Lee, Z., Wei, J., Schaaf, C., Schott, J., & Berk, A. (2014) On-orbit characterization of OLI (Landsat-8) for applications in aquatic remote sensing. Remote Sensing of Environment. 154, 272-284.

Kala, J., Evans, J., Pitman, A., Schaaf, C., Decker, M., Carouge, C., Mocko, D. & Sun, Q. (2014) Implementation of a soil albedo scheme in the CABLEv1.4b land surface model and evaluation against MODIS estimates over Australia. Geoscience Model Developments. 7, 2121-2140.

Gao, F., He, T., Masek, J., Shuai, Y., Schaaf, C., Wang, Z. (2014) Angular Effects and Correction for Medium Resolution Sensors to Support Crop Monitoring. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 10.1109

Liang. L, Schwatz, M., Wang, Z., Gao, F., Schaaf, C., Tan, B., Morisette, J., & Zhang, X. (2014) A Cross Comparison of Spatiotemporally Enhanced Springtime Phenological Measurements From Satellites and Ground in a Northern U.S. Mixed Forest. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 52, 12, 7513-7526.

Shuai, Y., Masek, J., Goa, F., Schaaf, C. & He, T. (2014) An approach for the long-term 30-m land surface snow-free albedo retrieval from historic Landsat surface reflectance and MODIS-based a priori anisotropy knowledge. Remote Sensing of Environment, 152, 467-479.

Roy, D. P., Wulder, M. A., Loveland, T. R., Allen, R. G., Anderson, M. C., Helder, D., ... & Zhu, Z. (2014) Landsat-8: Science and product vision for terrestrial global change research. Remote Sensing of Environment, 145, 154-172.

Proud, S. R., Zhang, Q., Schaaf, C., Fensholt, R., Rasmussen, M. O., Shisanya, C., ... & Sandholt, I. The Normalization of Surface Anisotropy Effects Present in SEVIRI Reflectances by Using the MODIS BRDF Method. IEEE Transactions on Gescience and Remote Sensing, 52, 6026-6039, 10.1109/TGRS.2013.2294602.

Kuusinen, N., Tomppo, E., Shuai, Y., & Berninger, F. (2014). Effects of forest age on albedo in boreal forests estimated from MODIS and Landsat albedo retrievals. Remote Sensing of Environment, 145, 145-153.

Jiao, Z., Hill, M. J., Schaaf, C. B., Zhang, H., Wang, Z., & Li, X. (2014). An Anisotropic Flat Index (AFX) to derive BRDF archetypes from MODIS. Remote Sensing of Environment, 141, 168-187.

Wang, Z., C.B. Schaaf, A.H. Strahler, M.J. Chopping, M.O. Román, Y. Shuai, C.E. Woodcock, D.Y. Hollinger, D.R. Fitzjarrald, Evaluation of MODIS albedo product (MCD43A) over grassland, agriculture and forest surface types during dormant and snow-covered periods, Remote Sensing of Environment, 140, 60-77, 2014.

Wright, P., M. Bergin, J. Dibb, B. Lefer, F. Domine, T. Carman, C. Carmagnola, M. Dumont, Z. Courville, C. Schaaf, Z. Wang, Comparing MODIS daily snow albedo to spectral albedo field measurements in Central Greenland, Remote Sensing of Environment, 140, 118-129, 2014.

H. Tang, M. Brolly, F. Zhao, A.H. Strahler, C.L. Schaaf... Deriving and validating Leaf Area Index (LAI) at multiple spatial scales through lidar remote sensing: A case study in Sierra National Forest, CA, Remote Sensing of Environment, 2014.




Yang, X., Schaaf, C., Strahler, A., Kunz, T., Fuller, N., Betke, M., ... & Lovell, J. (2013). Study of bat flight behavior by combining thermal image analysis with a LiDAR forest reconstruction. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 39(s1), S112-S125.

Justice, C.O., M.O. Roman, I.Csiszar, E.F. Vermote, R.E. Wolfe, S.J. Hook, M. Friedl, Z. Wang, C.B. Schaaf, T. Miura, M. Tschudi, G. Riggs, D.K. Hall, A.I. Lyapustin, S. Devadiga,C. Davidson, E.J. Masuoka, Land and cryosphere products from Suomi NPP VIIRS:Overview and status , Journal of Geophysical Research:Atmospheres, Vol. 118, 1-13,doi:10.1002/jgrd.50771, 2013.

Polgar, C.A., R. B. Primack, J. S. Dukes, C. Schaaf, Z. Wang, S. S. Hoeppner, Tree leaf out response to temperature: comparing field observations, remote sensing, and a warming experiment, International Journal of Biometeorology, DOI 10.1007/s00484-013-0718-z, 2013.

Stroeve,J., J. E. Box, Z. Wang, C. Schaaf, A. Barrett, Re-evaluation of MODIS MCD43 Greenland albedo accuracy and trends , Remote Sensing of Environment, 138, 199-214, 2013.

Huang, X., Z. Jiao, Y. Dong, H. Zhang, X. Li, Analysis of BRDF and Albedo Retrieved by Kernel-Driven Models Using Field Measurements, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 6(1), 149-161, 2013.

Zhao, F., X. Yang, A. H. Strahler, C. B. Schaaf, T. Yao, Z. Wang, M. O. Román, C. E. Woodcock, W. Ni-Meister, D. L.B. Jupp, J. L. Lovell, D. S. Culvenor, G. J. Newnham, H. Tang, R. O. Dubayah, A comparison of foliage profiles in the Sierra National Forest obtained with a full-waveform under-canopy EVI lidar system with the foliage profiles obtained with an airborne full-waveform LVIS lidar system , Remote Sensing of Environment, 136, 330-341 , 2013.

Shuai,Y., C. Schaaf, X. Zhang, A. Strahler, D. Roy, J. Morisette, Z. Wang, J. Nightingale, J. Nickeson, A. D. Richardson, D. Xie, J. Wang, X. Li, K. Strabala, J. E. Davies, Daily MODIS 500 m reflectance anisotropy direct broadcast (DB)products for monitoring vegetation phenology dynamics , International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34,5997 - 6016, 2013.

Yang,X., A. H. Strahler, C. B. Schaaf, D. L.B. Jupp, T. Yao, F. Zhao, Z. Wang, D. S. Culvenor, G. J. Newnham, J. L. Lovell, R. O. Dubayah, C. E. Woodcock, W. Ni-Meister, Three-dimensional forest reconstruction and structural parameter retrievals using a terrestrial full-waveform lidar instrument (Echidna) , Remote Sensing of Environment, 135, 36-51, 2013.

Grasso,L., D. W. Hillger, C. B. Schaaf, Z. Wang, R. Brummer, R. DeMaria, Use of MODIS 16-day albedos in generating GOES-R advanced baseline imager imagery , Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 7 (1), 073584, doi: 10.1117/1.JRS.7.073584, 2013.

Román,M. O., C. K. Gatebe, Y. Shuai, Z. Wang, F. Gao, J. Masek, T. He, S. Liang, C. B. Schaaf, Use of In Situ and Airborne Multiangle Data to Assess MODIS- and Landsat-Based Estimates of Directional Reflectance and Albedo , IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 51(3), 1393-1404, 10.1109/TGRS.2013.2243457, 2013.

Yang, Y., A. Marshak, S. Palm, Z. Wang, C. Schaaf, Assessment of Cloud Screening with Apparent Surface Reflectance in Support of the ICESat-2 Mission , IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 51(2), 1037-1045, 10.1109/TGRS.2012.2204066,2013.

Zhang, Q., C. Schaaf,K. C. Seto, The Vegetation Adjusted NTL Urban Index: A new approach to reduce saturation and increase variation in nighttime luminosity, Remote Sensing of Environment, 129, 32-41, 2013.

Hui, F., Cheng, X., Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., Ye, Y., Wang, X., Li, Z., Wang, K., Zhan, Z., Guo, J., Huang, H., Li, X., Guo, Z., & Gong, P. (2013). An Improved Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica. Science China Earth Sciences, 56(1), 1–12.




Zhao, F., A. H. Strahler, C. L. Schaaf, T. Yao, X. Yang, Z. Wang, M. A. Schull, M. O. Román, C. E. Woodcock, P. Olofsson, W. Ni-Meister, D. L.B. Jupp, J. L. Lovell, D. S. Culvenor, G. J. Newnham, Measuring gap fraction, element clumping index and LAI in Sierra Forest stands using a full-waveform ground-based lidar, Remote Sensing of Environment, 125, 73-79, 2012.

Cescatti, A., B. Marcolla, S. K. S. Vannan, J. Y. Pan, M. O. Román, X. Yang, P. Ciais, R. B. Cook, B. E. Law, G. Matteucci, M. Migliavacca, E. Moors, A. D. Richardson, G. Seufert, C. B. Schaaf, Intercomparison of MODIS albedo retrievals and in situ measurements across the global FLUXNET network, Remote Sensing of Environment, 121, 323¨C334, 2012.

Chopping, M., M. North, J. Chen, C. B. Schaaf, J. B. Blair, J. V. Martonchik, M. A. Bull, Forest Canopy Cover and Height From MISR in Topographically Complex Southwestern US Landscapes Assessed With High Quality Reference Data, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 5, 44-58, 2012.

He, L., J. M. Chen, J. Pisek, C. B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, Global clumping index map derived from the MODIS BRDF product, Remote Sensing of Environment, 119, 118-130, 2012.

Wang, Z., C. B. Schaaf, M. J. Chopping, A. H. Strahler, J. Wang, M. O.Román, A. V. Rocha, C. E. Woodcock,Y. Shuai, Evaluation of Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow albedo product (MCD43A) over tundra, Remote Sensing of Environment, 117, 264-280, 2012.

Douglas, E.S., Strahler, A., Martel, J., Cook, T., Mendillo, C., Marshall, R., Chakrabarti, S., Schaaf, C., Woodcock, C., Li, Z., Yang, X., Culvenor, D., Jupp, D., Newnham, G., & Lovell, J. (2012). DWEL: A Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidar for ground-based forest scanning. In  (pp. 4998-5001): IEEE Proceedings, International Geosciences And Remote Sensing Symposium 2012, Munich, Germany, 22-27 July, 2012.

Wang, X., Cheng, X., Li, Z., Huang, H., Niu, Z., Li, X., & Gong, P. (2012). Lake Water Footprint Identification from Time-Series ICESat/GLAS Data. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE, 9(3), 333–337.




O'Halloran, T., B. Law, M. L. Goulden, Z. Wang, J. Barr, C. Schaaf, M. Brown,J. D. Fuentes, M. Gockede, A. Black, V. Engel, Radiative forcing of natural forest disturbances, Global Change Biology, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02577.x, 2011.
ScienceDaily Research News:

Jiao, Z., C. Woodcock, C. B. Schaaf, B. Tan, J. Liu, F. Gao, A. Strahler, X. Li, J. Wang, Improving MODIS land cover classification by combining MODIS spectral and angular signatures in a Canadian boreal forest, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 37, 1-20, 2011.

Hill, M. J., M. O. Román, C. B. Schaaf, Dynamics of vegetation indices in tropical and subtropical savannas defined by ecoregions and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS) land cover, Geocarto International, 1-39, DOI:10.1080/10106049.2011.626529.

Shuai, Y., J. G. Masek, F. Gao, C. B. Schaaf, An algorithm for the retrieval of 30-m snow-free albedo from Landsat surface reflectance and MODIS BRDF, Remote Sensing of Environment, 115, 2204-2216, 2011.

Yao, T., X. Yang, F. Zhao, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, D. Jupp, J. Lovell, D. Culvenor, G.Newnham, W.Ni-Meister,C. B. Schaaf,C. Woodcock, J. Wang, X. Li, A. H. Strahler, Measuring forest structure and biomass in New England forest stands using Echidna ground-based lidar, Remote Sensing of Environment, 115, 2965¨C2974, 2011.

Román,M. O., C. K. Gatebe, C. B. Schaaf, R. Poudyal, Z. Wang, M. D. King, Variability in surface BRDF at different spatial scales (30 m - 500 m) over a mixed agricultural landscape as retrieved from airborne and satellite spectral measurements , Remote Sensing of Environment, 115, 2184-2203, 2011.

Chopping, M., C. B. Schaaf, F. Zhao, Z. Wang, A. W. Nolin,G. G. Moisen,J. V. Martonchik, M. Bull, Forest structure and aboveground biomass in the southwestern United States from MODIS and MISR, Remote Sensing of Environment,115,2943¨C2953, 2011.

Hill, M., M. O. Román, C. B. Schaaf,L. Hutley, C. Brannstrom, Characterizing vegetation cover in global savannas with an annual foliage clumping index derived from the MODIS BRDF product , Remote Sensing of Environment,115,2008-2024, 2011.

Zhao, F., X. Yang, M. A. Schull, M. O. Román,T. Yao, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, D. L. B. Jupp, J. L. Lovell, D. S. Culvenor, G. J. Newnham, A. D. Richardson, W. Ni-Meister, C. L. Schaaf, C. E. Woodcock, and A. H. Strahler Measuring effective leaf area index, foliage profile, and stand height in New England forest stands using a full-waveform ground-based lidar ,Remote Sensing of Environment,115,2954¨C2964, 2011.

Wang, Z., C. B. Schaaf, P. Lewis,Y. Knyazikhin, M. A. Schull, A. H. Strahler, T. Yao, R. B. Myneni, M. J. Chopping and J. B. Blair, Retrieval of canopy height using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, Remote Sensing of Environment, 115, 1595-1601, 2011.

Schaaf, C. B., Z. Wang and A. H. Strahler, Commentary on Wang and Zender-MODIS snow albedo bias at high solar zenith angles relative to theory and to in situ observations in Greenland, Remote Sensing of Environment, 115, 1296-1300, 2011.

Hill, Michael J., R. O. Miguel and C. B. Schaaf, Biogeography and Dynamics of Global Savannas: A Spatio-Temporal View, In Hill, Michael J. and Hanan, Niall P. eds. Ecosystem Function in Savannas: Measurement and Modeling at Landscape to Global Scales. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida) pp 3 - 37, 2011.

Schaaf, C. L. B., J. Liu, F. Gao and A. H. Strahler, MODIS Albedo and Reflectance Anisotropy Products from Aqua and Terra, In Land Remote Sensing and Global Environmental Change: NASA's Earth Observing System and the Science of ASTER and MODIS, Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing Series, Vol.11, B. Ramachandran, C. Justice, M. Abrams, Eds, Springer-Cerlag, 873 pp., 2011.

Gong, P., Li, Z., Huang, H., Sun, G., & Wang, L. (2011). ICESat GLAS Data for Urban Environment Monitoring. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, 49(3), 1158–1172.

Huang, H., Li, Z., Gong, P., Cheng, X., Clinton, N., Cao, C., Ni, W., & Wang, L. (2011). Automated Methods for Measuring DBH and Tree Heights with a Commercial Scanning Lidar. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 77(3), 219–227.

Wang, X., Cheng, X., Gong, P., Huang, H., Li, Z., & Li, X. (2011). Earth Science Applications of ICESat/GLAS: A Review. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 32(23), 8837–8864.




Ni-Meister,W.,S. Lee, A. H. Strahler, C. E. Woodcock, C. B. Schaaf, T. Yao, K.J. Ranson, G. Sun, and J.B. Blair Assessing general relationships between aboveground biomass and vegetation structure parameters for improved carbon estimate from lidar remote sensing,Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, G00E11, doi:10.1029/2009JG000936, 2010.

Lyapustin, A.,C. K. Gatebe, R. Kahn, R. Brandt,J. Redemann, P. Russell, M. D. King, C. A. Pedersen, S. Gerland, R. Poudyal, A. Marshak, Y. Wang, C. B. Schaaf, D. Hall, and A. Kokhanovsky, Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS Spring-2008 Campaign, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 4359-4375, 2010.

Wang, K., S. Liang, C. B. Schaaf, and A. H. Strahler Evaluation of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer land surface visible and shortwave albedo products at FLUXNET sites,Journal of Geophysical Rsearch, 115, D17107, doi:10.1029/2009JD013101, 2010.

Wang, Y.,A. Lyapustin, J.L. Privette, R.B. Cook, S.K. SanthanaVannan, E.F.Vermote, C.B. Schaaf,Assessment of biases in MODIS surface reflectance due to Lambertian approximation, Remote Sensing of Environment, 114,2791-2801, 2010.

Román, M. O., C. B. Schaaf, P. Lewis, F. Gao, G. P. Anderson, J. L. Privette, A. H. Strahler, C. E. Woodcock, M. Barnsley, Assessing the coupling between surface albedo derived from MODIS and the fraction of diffuse skylight over spatially-characterized landscapes, Remote Sensing of Environment, 114, 738-760, 2010.

Ju, J.,D. Roy, Y. Shuai, C. Schaaf, Development of an approach for generation of temporally complete daily nadir MODIS reflectance time series,Remote Sensing of Environment, 114, 1-20, 2010.

Gong, P., Niu, Z., Cheng, X., Zhao, K., Zhou, D., Guo, J., Liang, L., Wang, X., Li, D., Huang, H., Wang, Y., Wang, K., Li, W., Wang, X., Ying, Q., Yang, Z., Ye, Y., Li, Z., Zhuang, D., Chi, Y., Zhou, H., & Yan, J. (2010). China’s Wetland Change (1990–2000) Determined by Remote Sensing. Science China Earth Sciences, 53(7), 1036–1042.




Hall, D. K., S. V. Nghiem, C. B. Schaaf, N. E. DiGirolamo, and G. Neumann, Evaluation of surface and nearsurface melt characteristics on the Greenland ice sheet using MODIS and QuikSCAT data,J. Geophys. Res., 114, F04006, doi:10.1029/2009JF001287, 2009.

Schaaf, C.B., J. Cihlar, A. Belward, E. Dutton, and M. Verstraete, Albedo and Reflectance Anisotropy, ECV-T8: GTOS Assessment of the status of the development of standards for the Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables, ed., R. Sessa, FAO, Rome, May 2009.

Román, M. O., C. B. Schaaf, C. E. Woodcock, A. H. Strahler, X. Yang, R.H. Braswell, P. Curtis, K.J. Davis, D. Dragoni, M. L. Goulden, L. Gu, D. Y. Hollinger, T. E. Kolb, T.P. Meyer, J. W. Munger, J.L. Privette, A.D. Richardson, T.B. Wilson, S. C. Wofsy, The MODIS (Collection V005) BRDF/albedo product: Assessment of spatial representativeness over forested landscapes, Remote Sensing of Environment, 113, 2476-2498, 2009.

Rutan, D., F. Rose, M. Román, N. Manalo-Smith, C. Schaaf, and T. Charlock, Development and assessment of broadband surface albedo from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Clouds and Radiation Swath data product, J. Geophys. Res.,114, D08125, doi:10.1029/2008JD010669, 2009.

Zhang, X., M. Friedl and C. B. Schaaf, Sensitivity of vegetation phenology detection to the temporal resolution of satellite data,International Journal of Remote Sensing,30:8,2061-2074, 2009.

Liu, J., C. Schaaf, A. Strahler, Z. Jiao, Y. Shuai, Q. Zhang, M. Roman, J. A. Augustine, and E. G. Dutton, Validation of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) albedo retrieval algorithm: Dependence of albedo on solar zenith angle, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D01106, doi:10.1029/2008JD009969, 2009.




Moody, E. G., M. D. King, C. B. Schaaf, and S. Platnick, MODIS-Derived Spatially Complete Surface Albedo Products: Spatial and Temporal Pixel Distribution and Zonal Averages, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 47,2879-2894, 2008.

Strahler,A.H., D. L.B. Jupp, C. E. Woodcock, C. B. Schaaf,etc., Retrieval of forest structural parameters using a ground-based lidar instrument (Echidna), Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 34,Suppl.2,S426-S440, 2008.

Ni-Meister,W., A. H. Strahler, C. E. Woodcock, C. B. Schaaf, D. L. B. Jupp,etc., Modeling the hemispherical scanning, below-canopy lidar and vegetation structure characteristics with a geometric-optical and radiative-transfer model, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 34,Suppl.2,S385-S397, 2008.

Dickinson, R. E., L. Zhou, Y. Tian, Q. Liu, T. Lavergne, B. Pinty, C. B. Schaaf, and Y. Knyazikhin, A three-dimensional analytic model for the scattering of a spherical bush, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D20113, doi:10.1029/2007JD009564, 2008.

Hill,M.J., C. Averill, Z. Jiao, C. B. Schaaf, and J. D. Armston, Relationship of MISR RPV parameters and MODIS BRDF shape indicators to surface vegetation patterns in an Australian tropical savanna, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 34, Suppl.2, S247-S267, 2008.

Knobelspiesse, K. D., B. Cairns, B. Schmid, M. O. Román, and C. B. Schaaf, Surface BRDF estimation from an aircraft compared to MODIS and ground estimates at the Southern Great Plains site, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D20105, doi:10.1029/2008JD010062, 2008.

Coddington, O., K. S. Schmidt, P. Pilewskie, W. J. Gore, R. W. Bergstrom, M. Román, J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, J. Liu, and C. C. Schaaf, Aircraft measurements of spectral surface albedo and its consistency with ground-based and space-borne observations, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D17209, doi:10.1029/2008JD010089, 2008.

Stone, R. S., G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, E. Andrews, K. Loukachine, E. G. Dutton, C. Schaaf, and M. O. Román III, Radiative impact of boreal smoke in the Arctic: Observed and modeled, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 113, D14S16, doi:10.1029/2007JD009657, 2008.

Schaaf, C. L., J. Martonchik, B. Pinty, Y. Govaerts, F. Gao, A. Lattanzio, J. Liu, A. H. Strahler, and M. Taberner, Retrieval of Surface Albedo from Satellite Sensors,in Advances in Land Remote Sensing: System, Modeling, Inversion and Application, S. Liang, Ed., Springer, ISBN 978-1-4020-6449-4, page 219-243, 2008.

Roy, D.P., Ju, J., Lewis, P., Schaaf, C., Gao, F.,Hansen, M., Lindquist, E.,, Multi-temporal MODIS-Landsat data fusion for relative radiometric normalization, gap filling, and prediction of Landsat data, Remote Sensing of Environment,112:3112-3130, 2008.

Schaaf, C., Albedo and Reflectance Anisotropy, Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables for Climate Change Assessment, Mitigation and Adaptation., GTOS-52, Eds. R. Sessa and H. Dolman, FAO, Rome, 28-29, January 2008.

Liu,J., R. A. Melloh, C. E. Woodcock, R. E. Davis, T. H. Painter, C. McKenzie, Modeling the View Angle Dependence of Gap Fractions in Forest Canopies: Implications for Mapping Fractional Snow Cover Using Optical Remote Sensing, Journal of Hydrometeorology, doi: 10.1175/2008JHM866.1, 2008.

Shuai,Y., C. B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, J. Liu, Z. Jiao, Quality assessment of BRDF/albedo retrievals in MODIS operational system, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L05407, doi:10.1029/2007GL032568, 2008.

David L.B. Jupp, D.S. Culvenor, J.L. Lovell, G.J. Newnham, A.H. Strahler, and C.E. Woodcock, Estimating forest LAI profiles and structural parameters using a ground-based laser called Echidna,Tree Physiology ,doi:10.1093/treephys/tpn022, 2008.




Fang,H., S. Liang,H. Kim, J. R. Townshend,C. B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, and R. E. Dickinson Developing a spatially continuous 1 km surface albedo data set over North America from Terra MODIS productsJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, D20206, 2007.

Moody, E. G., M. D. King, C. B. Schaaf, D. K. Hall Northern Hemisphere five-year average (2000-2004) spectral albedos of surfaces in the presence of snow: Statistics computed from Terra MODIS land productsRemote Sensing of Environment 111 (2007) 337-345

Schaaf, C. B., The Sunlit Earth. In Our Changing Planet: The View from Space, M. D. King, C. L. Parkinson, K. C. Partington, and R. G. Williams, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 129-135, 2007.




Zhang,X., M. A.Friedl, C. B. Schaaf, Global vegetation phenology from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): Evaluation of global patterns and comparison with in situ measurements ,J. Geophys. Res., 111, G04017,doi:10.1029/2006JG000217,2006

Salomon, J., C. B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, F. Gao, Y. Jin, Validation of the MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo Retrievals Using Combined Observations from the Aqua and Terra Platforms, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. Vol. 44, No. 6, June 2006.

D. P. Roy, P. Lewis, C. B. Schaaf, S. Devadiga, and L. Boschetti, The Global Impact of Clouds on the Production of MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Model-Based Composites for Terrestrial Monitoring, IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 3, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2006.

Tsvetsinskaya,E.A., C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. H. Strahler, and R. E. Dickinson, Spatial and temporal variability in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer¨C derived surface albedo over global arid regions, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D20106, doi:10.1029/2005JD006772, 2006.




Baret, F., C. Schaaf, J. Morisette, J. Privette, Report on the Second International Workshop on Albedo Product Validation, Earth Observer, May/June, 2005.

Diner, D. J., B. H. Braswell, R. Davies, N. Gobron, J. Hu, Y. Jin, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, N. Loeb, J.-P. Muller, A. W. Nolin, B. Pinty, C. Schaaf, G. Seizi and J. Stroeve, The value of multiangle measurements for retrieving structurally and radiatively consistent properties of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces, Remote Sens. Environ., 97(4), 495-518, 2005.

Gao, F., C. Schaaf, A. Strahler, A. Roesch, W. Lucht, and R. Dickinson, The MODIS BRDF/Albedo Climate Modeling Grid Products and the Variability of Albedo for Major Global Vegetation Types, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D01104, doi:10.1029/2004JD00519, 2005.

Liang X.-Z., M. Xu, W. Gao, K. Kunkel, J. Slusser, Y. Dai, Q. Min, P. R. Houser, M. Rodell, C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, Development of land surface albedo parameterization based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D11107, doi:10.1029/2004JD005579. 2005.

Moody, E. G., M. D. King, S. Platnick, C. B. Schaaf, and F. Gao, Spatially complete global spectral surface albedos: Value-added datasets derived from Terra MODIS land products, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 43, 144-158, 2005.

Myhre, G., Kvalevag, M.M. and Schaaf, C.B., Radiative forcing due to anthropogenic vegetation change based on MODIS surface albedo data set, Geophys. Res. Let. 32:L21410, doi:10.1029/2005GL024004 2005.

Stroeve, J., J. Box, F. Gao, S. Liang, A. Nolin, C. Schaaf, Accuracy Assessment of the MODIS 16-day Albedo Product for Snow: Comparisons with Greenland in situ Measurements, Remote Sens. Environ., 94, 46-60, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2004.09.001, 2005.

Wang Z., M. Barlage, X. Zeng, R. E. Dickinson, C. B. Schaaf, The solar zenith angle dependence of desert albedo, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L05403, doi:10.1029/2004GL021835. 2005.

Zhang X., M. A. Friedl, C. B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, Z. Liu, Monitoring the response of vegetation phenology to precipitation in Africa by coupling MODIS and TRMM instruments, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D12103, doi:10.1029/2004JD005263. 2005.




Liu,J., R. A. Melloh, C. E. Woodcock, R. E. Davis and E. S. Ochs, The effect of viewing geometry and topography on viewable gap fractions through forest canopies, Hydrological Processes, 18, 3595-3607,2004.

Roesch, A., C. Schaaf and F. Gao, Use of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer bidirectional reflectance distribution function products to enhance simulated surface albedos, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D12, doi: 10.1029/2004JD004552, 2004.

Roujean, J.-L., C. B. Schaaf, and W. Lucht, Fundamentals of bi-directional reflectance and BRDF modeling, in: Reflective Properties of Vegetation and Soil, editors: M. von Schoenmark, B. Geiger, H.P. Roeser, Wissenshaft und Technik Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 352pp., 105-120, 2004.

Tian, Y., R. E. Dickinson, L. Zhou, R. B. Myneni, M. Friedl, C. B. Schaaf, M. Carroll, and F. Gao, Land boundary conditions from MODIS data and consequences for the albedo of a climate model, Geophys. Res. Let., 31, doi:10.1029/2003GL019104, 2004.

Wang, Z., X. Zeng, M. Barlage, R. E. Dickinson, F. Gao, and C. Schaaf, Using MODIS BRDF and Albedo Data to Evaluate Global Model Land Surface Albedo, J. Hydrometeor., 5, 3-14, 2004.

Zhang, X., M. Friedl, C.B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, Climate controls on vegetation phenological patterns in northern mid- and high latitudes inferred from MODIS data, Global Change Biology, 10, 1133-1145, 2004.

Zhang, X., M. Friedl, C.B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, A. Schneider, The footprint of urban climates on vegetation phenology, Geophys. Res. Let., 31, L12209, doi:10.1029/2004GL020137, 2004.




Gao, F., C. B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, Y. Jin, and X. Li, Detecting vegetation structure using a kernel-based BRDF model, Remote Sens. Environ., 86(2), 198-205, 2003.

Jin, Y., C. B. Schaaf, C. E. Woodcock, F. Gao, X. Li, A. H. Strahler, W. Lucht, S. Liang, Consistency of MODIS surface BRDF/Albedo retrievals: 1. Algorithm performance, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D5), 4158, doi:10.1029/2002JD002803, 2003.

Jin, Y., C. B. Schaaf, C. E. Woodcock, F. Gao, X. Li, A. H. Strahler, W. Lucht, S. Liang, Consistency of MODIS surface BRDF/Albedo retrievals: 2. Validation, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D5), 4159, doi:10.1029/2002JD002804, 2003.

Oleson, K. W., G. B. Bonan, C. Schaaf, F. Gao, Y. Jin, and A. Strahler, Assessment of global climate model land surface albedo using MODIS data, Geophys. Res. Letters, 30(8), 1443, doi:10.1029/2002GL016749, 2003.


Zhang, X., M.A. Friedl, C.B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, J.C.F. Hodges, F. Gao, B. C. Reed, and A. Huete, Monitoring vegetation phenology using MODIS, Remote Sens. Environ., 84, 471-475. 2003.

Zhou, L., R.E. Dickinson, K. Ogawa, Y. Tian, M. Jin, T. Schmugge and E. Tsvetsinskaya, Relations between albedos and emissivities from MODIS and ASTER data over North African Desert, Geophys. Res. Letters, 30(20), 2026, doi:10.1029/2003GL018069, 2003.

Zhou, L., R. E. Dickinson, Y. Tian, X. Zeng, Y. Dai, Z.-L. Yang, C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, Y. Jin, A. Strahler, R. B. Myneni, H. Yu, W. Wu, and M. Shaikh, Comparison of seasonal and spatial variations of albedos from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Common Land Model, J. Geophys. Res., 108, D15, 4488, doi:10.1029/2002JD003326, 2003.




Friedl, M. A., D. K. McIver, J. C. F. Hodges, X. Zhang, D. Muchoney, A. H. Strahler, C. E. Woodcock, S. Gopal, A. Schnieder, A. Cooper, A. Baccini, F. Gao, and C. Schaaf, Global land cover from MODIS: Algorithms and early results, Remote Sens. Environ., 83, 287-302, 2002.

E. A. Tsvetsinskaya, B. I. Vainbergb and E. V. Glushkoc, An integrated assessment of landscape evolution, long-term climate variability, and land use in the Amudarya Prisarykamysh delta, Journal of Arid Environments, 51, 363-381, 2002.

Gao, F., Y. Jin, X. Li, C. Schaaf, and A. H. Strahler, Bidirectional NDVI and Atmospherically Resistant BRDF Inversion for Vegetation Canopy, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 40, 1269-1278, 2002.

Jin, Y., C. Schaaf, F Gao, X. Li, A. Strahler, C. Bruegge, and J. Martonchik, Improving MODIS Surface BRDF/Albedo Retrieval with MISR Multi-angle Observations, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 40, 1593-1604, 2002.

Jin, Y., C. Schaaf, F Gao, X. Li, A. Strahler, X. Zeng, R. Dickinson, How does snow impact the albedo of vegetated land surfaces as analyzed with MODIS data?, Geophys. Res. Let., 29, 10.1029/2001GL014132, 2002.

Liang, S., H. Fang, M. Chen, C. J. Shuey, C. Walthall, C. Daughtry, J. Morisette, C. Schaaf and A. Strahler, Validating MODIS Land Surface Reflectance and Albedo Products: Methods and Preliminary Results, Remote Sens. Environ., 83, 149-162, 2002.

Schaaf, C. B., F. Gao, A. H. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. d'Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, and J. L. Privette, and D. P. Roy,First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir Reflectance Products from MODIS, Remote Sens. Environ., 83, 135-148, 2002.

Tsvetsinskaya, E., C. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, R. Dickinson, X. Zeng, W. Lucht, Relating MODIS derived surface albedo to soils andlandforms over Northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, Geophys. Res. Let., 29, 10.1029/2001GL014096, 2002.




Gao, F., C. Schaaf, A.H. Strahler and W. Lucht, Using a multi-kernel least variance approach to retrieve and evaluate albedo from limited BRDF observations, Remote Sens. Environ., 76, 57-66, 2001.

Gao, F., X. Li, A.H. Strahler and C. Schaaf, Evaluation of the LiTransit Kernel for BRDF Modeling, Remote Sensing Reviews, 19, 205-224, 2001.

Li, X., F. Gao, J. Wang, and A.H. Strahler, A Priori Knowledge Accumulation and its Application to Linear BRDF Model Inversions, J. Geophys. Res., D106, 11,925 - 11,935, 2001.

Martonchik, J. V., C. J. Bruegge, and A. H. Strahler, A Review of Reflectance Nomenclature Used in Remote Sensing, Remote Sensing Reviews, 19, 9-20, 2001.

Strugnell, N., W. Lucht, and C. Schaaf, A global albedo data set derived from AVHRR data for use in climate simulations, Geophys. Res. Let., 28, 191-194, 2001.

Strugnell, N., and W. Lucht, An algorithm to infer continental-scale albedo from AVHRR data, land cover class and field observations of typical BRDFs, J. Climate, 14, 1360-1376, 2001.

Wei, X., A. Hahmann, R. E. Dickinson, Z.-L. Liang, X. Zeng, K. Schaudt, C. Schaaf, and N. Strugnell, Comparison of albedos computed by land surface models and evaluation against remotely sensed data, J. Geophys. Res., D-106, 20, 687-20702, 2001.




Barnsley, M. J., P. D. Hobson, A. H. Hyman, W. Lucht, J.-P. Muller, and A. H. Strahler, Characterizing the spatial variability of broadband albedo in a semi-desert environment for MODIS validation, Remote Sens. Environ., 74, 58-68, 2000.

Chen, J., X. Li, T. Nilson, and A. Strahler, Recent advances in geometric-optical modeling and its applications, Remote Sens. Rev., 18, 227-262, 2000.

Hu, B., W. Lucht, A. Strahler, C. Schaaf, and M. Smith, Surface albedos and angle-corrected NDVI from AVHRR observations of South America, Remote Sens. Environ., 71, 119-132, 2000.

Kimes, D. S., Y. Knyazikhin, J. L. Privette, A. A. Abuelgasim, and F. Gao, Inversion Methods for Physically-Based Models, Remote Sens. Rev., 18, 381-440, 2000.

Liang, S., A. H. Strahler, M. J. Barnsley, C. C. Borel, S. A. W. Gerstl, D. J. Diner, A. J. Prata, and C. L. Walthall, Multiangle Remote Sensing: Past, Present and Future, Remote Sens. Rev., 18, 83-102, 2000.

Liang, S., J.C. Stroeve, I. F. Grant, A. H. Strahler, and J. P. Duvel, Angular Corrections to Satellite Data for Estimating Earth Radiation Budget, Remote Sens. Rev., 18, 103-136, 2000.

Lucht, W., A.H. Hyman, A. H. Strahler, M. J. Barnsley, P. Hobson, and J.-P. Muller, A comparison of satellite-derived spectral albedos to ground-based broadband albedo measurements modelled to satellite spatial scale for a semi-desert landscape, Remote Sens. Environ, 74, 85-98, 2000.

Lucht, W., and P. Lewis, Theoretical noise sensitivity of BRDF and albedo retrieval from the EOS-MODIS and MISR sensors with respect to angular sampling, Int. J. Remote Sensing, 21, 81-98, 2000.

Lucht, W., and J.-L. Roujean, Considerations in the Parametric Modeling of BRDF and Albedo from Multiangular Satellite Satellite Sensor Observations, Remote Sens. Rev., 343-380, 2000.

Lucht, W., C.B. Schaaf, and A.H. Strahler, An Algorithm for the retrieval of albedo from space using semiempirical BRDF models, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 38, 977-998, 2000.

Lucht, W., C.B. Schaaf, A.H. Strahler, and R. P. d'Entremont, Remote sensing of albedo using the BRDF in relation to land surface properties, in: Observing Land From Space: Science, Customers and Technology, Eds. M.M. Verstraete, M. Menenti, and J. Peltoniemi, Advances in Global Change Research Book Series, No. 4, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 341 pp., 175-186, 2000.

Sandemeier, S. R., and A. H. Strahler, BRDF Laboratory Measurements, Remote Sens. Rev., 18, 481-502, 2000.

M. A. Friedl, C. Woodcock, S. Gopal, D. Muchoney,A. H. Srahler and C. Barker-Schaaf, A note on procedures used for accuracy assessment in land cover maps derived from AVHRR data, Int. J. remote sensing, 21 ,1073-1077, 2000.

M.A. Friedl, D. Muchoney, D. McIver, F. Gao, J.C.F. Hodges, and A.H.Strahler, Characterization of North American land cover from NOAA-AVHRR data using the EOS MODIS land cover classification algorithm, Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 977-980, 2000.