UMass Boston




Monitoring New England Ecosystems Over Mixed Forests, Submerged Vegetation, and the Coastal Ocean Region With Remote Sensing Data. Zhang, Shuai; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Chen, Robert F.; Byrnes, Jarrett; Pahlevan, Nima;  Paynter, Ian L.. University of Massachusetts Boston, 2023.


Modeling and Monitoring Higher Latitude Albedo Change with Higher Resolution Landsat and Sentinel-2 Products. Erb, Angela M.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Byrnes, Jarrett; Ricciardi, Karen. University of Massachusetts Boston, 2021.


Characterizing the Impacts of the Invasive Hemlock Woolly Adelgid on the Forest Structure of New England. Boucher, Peter B.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Valencius, Conevery B.; Chen, Robert; Orwig, David; Cook, Bruce; Krause, Keith. University of Massachusetts Boston, 2020.


Assessing the Role of Climate Change and Land Cover Change in Eco-Hydrologic Modeling (Snowmelt Timing and Dissolved Organic Carbon Fluxes). Rouhani, Shabnam; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Douglas, Ellen; Ricciardi, Karen; Huntington, Thomas. University of Massachusetts Boston, 2018.


MODIS and VIIRS Continuity Products in Synergy with Landsat Data to Monitor Vegetation Phenology. Liu, Yan; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Ricciardi, Karen; Primack, Richard B.; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoyang. University of Massachusetts Boston, 2017.

Assessing Structure and Condition of Temperate and Tropical Forests: Fusion of Terrestrial Lidar and Airborne Multi-Angle and Lidar Remote Sensing. Saenz, Edward J.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Douglas, Ellen; Bowen, Robert; Román, Miguel. University of Massachusetts Boston, 2017.


Using Remote Sensing to Characterize Spatial and Temporal Variation of Saltmarsh Structure. Paynter, Ian L.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Bowen, Jennifer; Chen, Robert; Cook, Bruce; Strahler, Alan. University of Massachusetts Boston, 2016.


Advances in Measuring Forest Structure by Terrestrial Laser Scanning with the Dual Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL). Li, Zhan; Strahler, Alan H.; Schaaf, Crystal B.. Boston University, 2015.

Carbon and Water Cycles in Mixed-Forest Catchments: Ecohydrological Modeling of the Influence of Climate Variability and Invasive Insect Infestation. Kim, Jihyun; Schaaf, Crystal; Strahler, Alan; Hwang, Taehee. Boston University. 2015.


Assessing Change in the Earth's Land Surface Albedo with Moderate Resolution Satellite Imagery, Sun, Qingsong; Schaaf, Crystal B.. Boston University, 2014.


Studying Soil Moisture and Land-to-Water Carbon Export in Urbanized Coastal Areas Using Remotely Sensed Data and a Regional Hydro-Ecological Model Yang, Yun; Schaaf, Crystal B.. University of Massachusetts Boston 2013.


Measuring Forest Structure and Biomass using Echidna Ground based Lidar, Yao, Tian; Strahler, Alan. Boston University, 2012.

Using a ground-based lidar instrument (Echidna(RTM)) to reconstruct three-dimensional forest structure for biophysical and ecological studies, Yang, Xiaoyuan; Schaaf, Crystal B.. Boston University, 2012. 2012. 3483505.


The MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance anisotropy and albedo of dormant and snow-covered canopies, Wang, Zhuosen; Schaaf, Crystal B.. Boston University, 2011. 2011. 3430418.

Measuring the leaf area index and foliage profile of forest canopies using a ground-based lidar instrument (Echidna(RTM)), Zhao, Feng; Schaaf, Crystal B.. Boston University, 2011. 2011. 3451780.


Tracking daily land surface albedo and reflectance anisotropy with moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS)
Shuai, Yanmin; Schaaf, Crystal B.. Boston University, 2010. 2010. 3382585.


A global spatially and temporally complete reflectance anisotropy database to improve surface characterization for environmental modeling, Zhang, Qingling; Schaaf, Crystal B.. Boston University, 2009. 2009. 3345604.

Use of in situ and airborne data to assess satellite-based estimates of directional reflectance and albedo, Roman, Miguel; Schaaf, Crystal B.. Boston University, 2009. 2009. 3363636.

The use of MODIS reflectance anisotropy to recover land surface properties, Jiao, Ziti; Schaaf, Crystal B.. Boston University, 2009. 2009. 3363616.


Evaluation, improvement, and application of surface BRDF and albedo retrievals from MODIS observations, Jin, Yufang; Strahler, Alan H. Boston University, 2003. 2003. 3067189.


Retrieval of land surface albedos from satellite measurements, Strugnell, Nicholas; Strahler, Alan. Boston University, 2001. 2001. 3017474.


The retrieval of surface reflectance parameters from the coupled atmosphere-land surface system: Advanced methods, Hu, Baoxin; Strahler, Alan H. Boston University, 1998. 1998. 9813458.


Meteorological applications of surface bidirectional reflectance distribution functions retrieved from satellite data, d'Entremont, Robert; Strahler, Alan H. Boston University, 1997. 1997.


Modeling the direct-beam instantaneous spectral surface albedo of a forest landscape using geometric-optics and a distributed parameter approach, Schaaf, Crystal Lynn Barker; Strahler, Alan H.; Woodcock, Curtis; Lambin, Eric. Boston University, 1994. 1994. 9422509.


Radiative transfer modeling of the coupled atmosphere and plant canopy and BRDF retrieval, Liang, Shunlin; Strahler, Alan H. Boston University, 1993. 1993. 9309758.


Back to all publications

Publications 2021 To Present



Yu Shen, Xiaoyang Zhang, Shuai Gao, Hankui Zhang, Crystal Schaaf, Weile Wang, Yongchang Ye, Yuxia Liu, Khuong Tran. (2024). Analyzing GOES-R ABI BRDF-adjusted EVI2 time series by comparing with VIIRS observations over the CONUS. Remote Sensing of Environment. 

Román, M. O., Justice, C., Paynter, I., Boucher, P. B., Devadiga, ., Endsley, A., Erb, A., Friedl, M., Gao, H., Giglio, L., Gray, J., Hall, D., Hulley, G., Kimball, J., Knyazikhin, Y., Lyapustin, A., Myneni, R., Noojipady, P., Pu, J., Riggs, G., Sarkar, S., Schaaf, C., Shah, D., Tran, K., Vermote, E., Wang, D., Wang, Z., Wu, A., Ye, Y., Shen, Y., Zhang, Zhang, S., Zhang, X., Zhao, M., Davidson, C., and Wolfe, R. (2024). Continuity between NASA MODIS Collection 6.1 and VIIRS Collection 2 land products. Remote Sensing of Environment302, 113963.




Sánchez-Zapero, J., Martínez-Sánchez, E., Camacho, F., Wang, Z., Carrer, D., Schaaf, C., García-Haro, F. J., Nickeson, J., & Cosh, M. (2023). Surface ALbedo VALidation (SALVAL) Platform: Towards CEOS LPV Validation Stage 4—Application to Three Global Albedo Climate Data Records. Remote Sensing, 15(4), Article 4.


Ingty, T., Erb, A., Zhang, X., Schaaf, C., & Bawa, K. S. (2023). Climate change is leading to rapid shifts in seasonality in the himalaya. International Journal of Biometeorology67(5), 913-925.


Radeloff, V. C., Roy, D. P., Wulder, M. A., Anderson, M., Cook, B., Crawford, C. J., Friedl, M., Gao, F., Gorelick, N., Hansen, M., Healey, S., Hostert, P., Hulley, G., Huntington, J. L., Johnson, D. M., Neigh, C., Lyapustin, A., Lymburner, L., Pahlevan, N., Pekel, J., Scambos, T. A., Schaaf, C., Strobl, P., Woodcock, C. E., Zhang, H. K., Zhu, Z. (2024). Need and vision for global medium-resolution Landsat and Sentinel-2 data products. Remote Sensing of Environment300, 113918.




Erb, A.M., Li, Z., Sun, Q., Paynter, I., Wang, Z., Schaaf, C. (2022). Evaluation of the Landsat-8 Albedo Product across the Circumpolar Domain. Remote Sensing, 14(21), 5320. 


Chopping, M., Wang, Z., Schaaf, C., Bull, M. A., & Duchesne, R. R. (2022). Forest aboveground biomass in the southwestern United States from a MISR multi-angle index, 2000–2015. Remote Sensing of Environment, 275, 112964. 


Wulder, M.A., D.P. Roy, V.C. Radeloff; T.R. Loveland, M.C. Anderson, D.M. Johnson, S. Healey, Z. Zhu, T.A. Scambos, N. Pahlevan, M. Hansen, N. Gorelick, C.J. Crawford, J.G. Masek, T. Hermosilla, J.C. White, A.S. Belward, C. Schaaf, C. Woodcock, J.L. Huntington, L. Lymburner, P. Hostert, F. Gao, A. Lyapustin, J-F. Pekel, P. Strobl, and B.C. Cook. (2022). Fifty years of Landsat science and impacts. Remote Sensing of Environment. 280: 113195. 




Miraglio, T., Huesca, M., Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P., Schaaf, C., Adeline, K.R., Ustin, S.L. and Briottet, X., 2021. Impact of modeling abstractions when estimating leaf mass per area and equivalent water thickness over sparse forests using a hybrid method. Remote sensing13(16), p.3235.


Kim, J., Kim, Y., Zona, D., Oechel, W., Park, S.-J., Lee, B.-Y., Yi, Y., Erb, A., & Schaaf, C. L. 2021. Carbon response of tundra ecosystems to advancing greenup and snowmelt in Alaska. Nature Communications, 12(1), 6879. 


Liu, Y., McDonough MacKenzie, C., Primack, R. B., Hill, M. J., Zhang, X., Wang, Z., & Schaaf, C. B. (2021). Using remote sensing to monitor the spring phenology of Acadia National Park across elevational gradients. Ecosphere, 12(12), e03888. 


Yan, K.,  Li, H., Song, W., Tong, Y., Hao, D.,  Zeng, Y., Mu, X., Yan, G., Fang, Y., Myneni, R. B., Schaaf, C., 2021. Extending a linear kernel-driven BRDF model to realistically simulate reflectance anisotropy over rugged terrain. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing60, 1-16.


Rouhani, S., Schaaf, C., Huntington, T., Choate, J. 2021 Simulation of Dissolved Organic Carbon Flux in the Penobscot Watershed, Maine. Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology, 21(2), 256-270. 


Pisek J., Arndt S.K., Erb A., Pendall E., Schaaf C., Wardlaw T.J., Woodgate W., and Knyazikhin Y. 2021 Exploring the Potential of DSCOVR EPIC Data to Retrieve Clumping Index in Australian Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network Observing Sites. Front. Remote Sensing, 2, 6. 


Elmes, A. Levy, C., Erb, A., Hall, D., Scambos, T., DiGirolamo, N., and Schaaf, C., 2021. Consequences of the 2019 Greenland Ice Sheet Melt Episode on Albedo. Remote Sensing, 13(2). 


Pisek, J., Erb, A., Korhonen, L., Biermann, T., Carrara, A., Cremonese, E., Cuntz, M., Fares, S., Gerosa, G., Grunwald, T., Hase, N., Heliasz, M., Ibrom, A., Knohl, A., Kobler, J., Kruijt, B., Lange, H., Leppanen, L., Limousin, J.-M., Serrano, F. R. L., Loustau, D., Lukevs, P., Lundin, L., Marzuoli, R., Molder, M., Montagnani, L., Neirynck, J., Peichl, M., Rebmann, C., Rubio, E., Santos-Reis, M., Schaaf, C., Schmidt, M., Simioni, G., Soudani, K., Vincke, C. 2021. Retrieval, validation of forest background reflectivity from daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data across European forests. Biogeosciences, 18(2). 621-635. 


Peter B Boucher, Ian Paynter, David A Orwig, Ilan Valencius, Crystal Schaaf, Sampling forests with Terrestrial Laser ScanningAnnals of Botany, 2021.


Duncanson, L., Armston, J., Disney, M. I. et al. (2021) Aboveground Woody Biomass Product Validation Good Practices Protocol. Version 1.0. In L. Duncanson, M. Disney, J. Armston, J. Nickeson, D. Minor, and F. Camacho (Eds.), Good Practices for Satellite Derived Land Product Validation,(p. 236): Land Product Validation Subgroup (WGCV/CEOS),

Back to all publications

Publications 2011 To 2020


Calders, K., Adams, J., Armston, J., Bartholomeus, H., Bauwens, S., Patrick Bentley, L., Chave, J., Danson, F. M., Demol, M., Disney, M., Gaulton, R., Krishna Moorthy, S. M., Levick, S. R., Saarinen, N., Schaaf, C., Stovall, A., Terryn, L., Wilkes, P., Verbeeck, H., 2020. Terrestrial laser scanning in forest ecology: expanding the horizon. Remote Sensing of Environment, 251.

Boucher, P.B., Hancock, S., Orwig, D.A., Duncanson, L., Armston, J., Tang, H., Krause, K., Cook, B., Paynter, I., Li, Z., Elmes, A., and Schaaf, C., 2020. Detecting Change in Forest Structure with Simulated GEDI Lidar Waveforms: A Case Study of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae) Infestation. Remote Sensing, 12 (8): 1304.


Potter, S., Solvik, K., Erb, A., Goetz, S.J., Johnstone, J.F., Mack, M.C., Randerson, J.T., Román, M.O., Schaaf, C.L., Turetsky, M.R. and Veraverbeke, S., Walker, X.J., Wang, Z., Massey, R., Rogers, B.M., 2019. Climate change decreases the cooling effect from post‐fire albedo in boreal North America. Global change biology.

Bruegge, C., Coburn, C., Elmes, A., Helmlinger, M. C., Kataoka, F., Kuester, M., Kuze, A., Ochoa, T., Schaaf, C., Shiomi, K., and Schwander, F. M., 2019. Bi-Directional Reflectance Factor Determination of the Railroad Valley Playa. Remote Sensing, 11 (12). 

Wei, S., Fang, H., Schaaf, C. B., He, L., Chen, J. M., 2019. Global 500 m clumping index product derived from MODIS BRDF data (2001–2017). Remote Sensing of Environ., 232.

Wulder, M.A., Loveland, T.R., Roy, D.P., Crawford, C.J., Masek, J.G., Woodcock, C.E., Allen, R.G., Anderson, M.C., Belward, A.S., Cohen, W.B., Dwyer, J., Erb, A., Gao, F., Griffiths, P., Helder, D., Hermosilla, T., Hipple, J. D., Hostert, P., Hughes, M. J., Huntington, J., Johnson, D., M., Kennedy, R., Kilic, A., Li, Z., Lymburner, L., McCorckel, J., Pahlevan, N., Scambos, T. A., Schaaf, C., Schott, J. R., Sheng, Y., Storey, J., Vermote, E., Vogelmann, J., White, J. C., Wynne, R. H., and Zhu, Z., 2019. Current Status of Landsat Program, Science, and Applications. Remote Sensing of Environ., 225: 127–47.

Wang, Z., Schaaf, C., Lattanzio, A., Carrer, D., Grant, I., Román, M., Camacho, F., Yu, Y., Sánchez-Zapero, J. & Nickeson, J. 2019. Global Surface Albedo Product Validation Best Practices Protocol. Version 1.0. In Z. Wang, J. Nickeson & M. Román (Eds.), Best Practice for Satellite Derived Land Product Validation (p. 45): Land Product Validation Subgroup (WGCV/CEOS). doi:10.5067/DOC/CEOSWGCV/LPV/ALBEDO.001.

Disney, M. I., Burt, A., Calders, K., Schaaf, C. and Stovall, A. 2019. Innovations in ground and airborne technologies as reference and for training and validation: Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), Surveys in Geophysics vol. 71: Forest Biomass and Structure from Space, eds. K. Scipal. R. Dubyah, T. Le Toan, S. Quegan, A. Cazenave and T. Lopez.

Paynter, I., Schaaf, C., Bowen, J. L., Deegan, L., Peri, F., & Cook, B. 2019. Characterizing a New England Saltmarsh with NASA G-LiHT Airborne Lidar. Remote Sensing, 11(509).

Tang, H., Song, X., Zhao, F. A., Strahler, A. H., Schaaf, C. L., Goetz, S., Huang, C., Hansen, M. C., Dubayah, R. 2019. Definition and measurement of tree cover: A comparative analysis of field-, lidar- and landsat-based tree cover estimations in the Sierra national forests, USA. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 268: 258-268.

Zhu, Z., Wulder, M.A., Roy, D.P., Woodcock, C.E., Hansen, M.C., Radeloff, V.C., Healey, S.P., Schaaf, C., Hostert, P., Strobl, P., Pekel, JF., Lymburner, L., Pahlevan, N., and Scambos, T.A. 2019. Benefits of the free and open Landsat data policy. Remote Sensing of Environ, 224, 382-385.

Jiao, Z., Ding, A., Kokhanovsky, A., Schaaf, C., Bréon, F. M., Dong, Y., Wang, Z., Liu, Y., Zhang, X., Yin, S., Cui, L., Mei, L., and Chang, Y. 2019. Development of a snow kernel to better model the anisotropic reflectance of pure snow in a kernel-driven BRDF model framework. Remote Sensing of Environ, 221(19), 198–209.


Kim, Y., Kimball, J.S., Du, J., Schaaf, C.L.B., & Kirchner, P.B. 2018. Quantifying the effects of freeze-thaw transitions and snowpack melt on land surface albedo and energy exchange over Alaska and Western Canada Quantifying the effects of freeze-thaw transitions and snowpack melt on land surface albedo and energy exchange. Environ. Res. Lett, 13,

Liu, Q., Yan G., Jiao, Z., Xiao, Q., Wen, J., Liang, S., Wang, J., Schaaf, C., and Strahler, A. 2018. From Geometric-Optical Remote Sensing Modeling to Quantitative Remote Sensing Science -- in Memory of Academician Xiaowen Li. Remote Sensing, 10(11), 1764.

Duchesne, R. R., Chopping, M. J., Tape, K. D., Wang, Z., & Schaaf, C. L. B. 2018. Changes in tall shrub abundance on the North Slope of Alaska, 2000–2010. Remote Sens of Environ, 219, 221–232.

Li, Z., Erb, A., Sun, Q., Liu, Y., Shuai, Y., Wang, Z., Boucher, P., Schaaf, C., 2018. Preliminary assessment of 20-m surface albedo retrievals from sentinel-2A surface reflectance and MODIS/VIIRS surface anisotropy measures. Remote Sens of Environ, 217, 352–365.

Paynter, I., Genest, D., Saenz, E., Peri, F., Li, Z., Strahler, A., Schaaf, C., 2018. Quality Assessment of Terrestrial Laser Scanner Ecosystem Observations Using Pulse Trajectories. IEEE Trans. Geosci Remote Sens, 56(11), 6324-6333.

Jiao, Z., Zhang, X., Bréon, F.M., Dong, Y., Schaaf, C.B., Román, M., Wang, Z., Cui, L., Yin, S., Ding, A., & Wang, J. 2018. The influence of spatial resolution on the angular variation patterns of optical reflectance as retrieved from MODIS and POLDER measurements. Remote Sens. Environ. 215, 371–385. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2018.06.025

Riihelä, A., Manninen, T., Key, J., Sun, Q., Sütterlin, M., Lattanzio, A., & Schaaf, C. 2018. A Multisensor Approach to Global Retrievals of Land Surface Albedo. doi:10.3390/rs10060848

Zhang, X., Liu, L., Liu, Y., Jayavelu, S., Wang, J., Moon, M., Henebry, G. M., Friedl, M. A., Schaaf, C. B. 2018. Generation and evaluation of the VIIRS land surface phenology product. Remote Sens. Environ., 216, 212–229.

Zhang, X., Jayavelu, S., Liu, L., Friedl, M.A., Henebry, G.M., Liu, Y., Schaaf, C.B., Richardson, A.D., & Gray, J. 2018. Evaluation of land surface phenology from VIIRS data using time series of PhenoCam imagery. Agric. For. Meteorol. 256–257, 137–149.

Jiao, Z., Dong, Y., Schaaf, C.B., Chen, J.M., Román, M., Wang, Z., Zhang, H., Ding, A., Erb, A., Hill, M.J., Zhang, X., & Strahler, A. 2018. An algorithm for the retrieval of the clumping index (CI) from the MODIS BRDF product using an adjusted version of the kernel-driven BRDF model. Remote Sens. Environ. 209, 594–611.

Kim, J. H., Hwang, T., Yang, Y., Schaaf, C. L., Boose, E., & Munger, J. W. 2018. Warming-Induced Earlier Greenup Leads to Reduced Stream Discharge in a Temperate Mixed Forest Catchment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 123(6), 1960–1975.

Kim, J., Hwang, T., Schaaf, C.,  Kljun, N., & Munger, J. W, 2018. Seasonal variation of source contributions to eddy-covariance CO2 measurements in a mixed hardwood-conifer forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 253-254, 71–83.

Manninen, T., Riihelä, A., Heidinger, A., Schaaf, C., Lattanzio A., & Key, J. 2018. Intercalibration of Polar-Orbiting Spectral Radiometers Without Simultaneous Observations. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 56(3), 1507-1519.

Paynter, I., Genest, D., Peri, F., & Schaaf, C. 2018. Bounding uncertainty in volumetric geometric models for terrestrial lidar observations of ecosystems. Interface Focus 8(2).

Orwig, D.A., Boucher, P., Paynter, I., Saenz, E., Li, Z., & Schaaf, C. 2018. The potential to characterize ecological data with terrestrial laser scanning in Harvard Forest, MA. Interface Focus 8(2).

Li, Z., Schaefer, M., Strahler, A., Schaaf, C., & Jupp, D. 2018. On the utilization of novel spectral laser scanning for three-dimensional classification of vegetation elements. Interface Focus 8(2).

Media Coverage: 

Royal Society Blogs: The Terrestrial Laser Scanning Revolution in Forest Ecology

Interface Focus Issue on TLS in Forest Ecology

Paynter, I., Genest, D., Saenz, E., Peri, F., Boucher, P., Li, Z., Strahler, A., & Schaaf, C. 2018. Classifying Ecosystems with Metaproperties from Terrestrial Laser Scanner Data. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 9(2), 210–222.

Wang, Z., Schaaf, C. B., Sun, Q., Shuai, Y., & Román, M. O. 2018. Capturing Rapid Land Surface Dynamics with Collection V006 MODIS BRDF/NBAR/Albedo (MCD43) Products. Remote Sensing of Environment, 207(February), 50–64.

Klosterman, S., Melaas, E., Wang, J., Martinez, A., Frederick, S., O’Keefe, J., Orwig, D.A., Wang, Z., Sun, Q., Schaaf, C., Friedl, M.A., & Richardson, A.D. 2018. Fine-scale perspectives on landscape phenology from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photography. Agric. For. Meteorol. 248, 397–407. 


Jiao, T., Williams, C. A., Ghimire, B., Masek, J., Gao, F., & Schaaf, C. 2017. Global climate forcing from albedo change caused by large-scale deforestation and reforestation: quantification and attribution of geographic variation. Climatic Change, 142(3-4), 463-476. DOI 10.1007/s10584-017-1962-8

Trlica, A., Hutyra, L. R., Schaaf, C. B., Erb, A., & Wang, J. A. 2017. Albedo, Land Cover, and Daytime Surface Temperature Variation across an Urbanized Landscape. Earth’s Future, 5(11), 1084–1101.

Liu, Y., Wang, Z., Sun, Q., Erb, A. M., Li, Z., Schaaf, C. B., Zhang, X., Román, M. O., Scott, R. L., Zhang, Q., Novick, K. A., Syndonia Bret-Harte, M., Petroy, S., & SanClements, M. 2017. Evaluation of the VIIRS BRDF, Albedo and NBAR Products Suite and an Assessment of Continuity with the Long Term MODIS Record. Remote Sensing of Environment, 201, 256–274.

Wang, Z., Schaaf, C. B., Sun, Q., Kim, J., Erb, A. M., Gao, F., Román, M. O., Yang, Y., Petroy, S., Taylor, J. R., Masek, J. G., Morisette, J. T., Zhang, X., & Papuga, S. A. 2017. Monitoring Land Surface Albedo and Vegetation Dynamics Using High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Synthetic Time Series from Landsat and the MODIS BRDF/NBAR/albedo Product. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 59, 104–117.

Kim, J., Hwang, T., Schaaf, C. B., Orwig, D. A., Boose, E., & Munger, W. J. 2017. Increased Water Yield due to the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (HWA) Infestation in New England. Geophysical Research Letters, 2327–2335.

Media Coverage:

Science Magazine: Research links decline in hemlock forests to changes in water resources

AGU Blogosphere: Research links decline in hemlock forests to changes in water resources

Geophysical Research Letters: Cover page story

Moustafa, S. E., Rennermalm, A. K., Rom?n, M. O., Wang, Z., Schaaf, C. B., Smith, L. C., Koenig, L. S., & Erb, A. 2017. Evaluation of Satellite Remote Sensing Albedo Retrievals over the Ablation Area of the Southwestern Greenland Ice Sheet. Remote Sensing of Environment, 198, 115–125.

Cooper, S. D., Roy, D. P., Schaaf, C. B., & Paynter, I. 2017. Examination of the Potential of Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry for Rapid Nondestructive Field Measurement of Grass Biomass. Remote Sensing, 9(531).

Liu, Y., Hill, M. J., Zhang, X., Wang, Z., Richardson, A. D., Hufkens, K., Filippa, G., Baldocchi, D. D., Ma, S., Verfaillie, J., & Schaaf, C. B. 2017. Using Data from Landsat, MODIS, VIIRS and PhenoCams to Monitor the Phenology of California Oak/grass Savanna and Open Grassland across Spatial Scales. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 237–238, 311–325.

Sun, Q., Wang, Z., Li, Z., Erb, A., & Schaaf, C. B. 2017. Evaluation of the Global MODIS 30 Arc-Second Spatially and Temporally Complete Snow-Free Land Surface Albedo and Reflectance Anisotropy Dataset. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 58, 36–49.

Pahlevan, N., Schott, J. R., Franz, B. A., Zibordi, G., Markham, B., Bailey, S., Schaaf, C. B., Ondrusek, M., Greb, S., & Strait, C. M. 2017. Landsat 8 Remote Sensing Reflectance (Rrs) Products: Evaluations, Intercomparisons, and Enhancements. Remote Sensing of Environment, 190, 289–301.

Hill, M. J., Zhou, Q., Sun, Q., Schaaf, C. B., & Palace, M. 2017. Relationships between Vegetation Indices, Fractional Cover Retrievals and the Structure and Composition of Brazilian Cerrado Natural Vegetation. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 38(3), 874–905.

Zhang, X., Wang, J., Gao, F., Liu, Y., Schaaf, C., Friedl, M., Yu, Y., Jayavelu, S., Gray, J., Liu, L., Yan, D., & Henebry, G. M. (2017). Exploration of Scaling Effects on Coarse Resolution Land Surface Phenology. Remote Sensing of Environment, 190, 318–330.


Burkhart, J. F., Kylling, A., Schaaf, C. B., Wang, Z., Bogren, W., Storvold, R., Sølbo, S., Pedersen, C. A., & Gerland, S. 2016. Unmanned Aerial System Nadir Reflectance and MODIS Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Surface Reflectances Intercompared over Greenland. The Cryosphere Discussions, (December), 1–29.

Salisbury, J., Davis, C., Erb, A., Hu, C., Gatebe, C., Jordan, C., Lee, Z., Mannino, A., Mouw, C., Schaaf, C., Schaeffer, B., & Tzortziou, M. 2016. Coastal Observations from a New Vantage Point. Eos, 97.

Jiao, Z., Schaaf, C. B., Dong, Y., Román, M., Hill, M. J., Chen, J. M., Wang, Z., Zhang, H., Saenz, E., Poudyal, R., Gatebe, C., Bréon, F.-M., Li, X., & Strahler, A. 2016. A Method for Improving Hotspot Directional Signatures in BRDF Models Used for MODIS. Remote Sensing of Environment, 186, 135–151.

Paynter, I., Saenz, E., Genest, D., Peri, F., Erb, A., Li, Z., Wiggin, K., Muir, J., Raumonen, P., Schaaf, E. S., Strahler, A., & Schaaf, C. 2016. Observing Ecosystems with Lightweight, Rapid-Scanning Terrestrial Lidar Scanners. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation, 1–16. doi: 10.1002/rse2.26

Media Coverage:

ZSL Blog: Observing ecosystems with lightweight, rapid-scanning terrestrial lidar scanners

DailyMail: Beautiful scans recreate Treak Cliff Cavern in Derbyshire

Zhou, Q., Hill, M. J., Sun, Q., & Schaaf, C. B. (2016). Retrieving Understorey Dynamics in the Australian Tropical Savannah from Time Series Decomposition and Linear Unmixing of MODIS Data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 37(6), 1445–1475.

Wang, Z., Erb, A. M., Schaaf, C. B., Sun, Q., Liu, Y., Yang, Y., Shuai, Y., Casey, K. A., & Román, M. O. 2016. Early Spring Post-Fire Snow Albedo Dynamics in High Latitude Boreal Forests Using Landsat-8 OLI Data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 185, 71–83.

Li, Z., Jupp, D., Strahler, A., Schaaf, C., Howe, G., Hewawasam, K., Douglas, E., Chakrabarti, S., Cook, T., Paynter, I., Saenz, E., & Schaefer, M. 2016. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar. Sensors, 16(3), 313.

Hill, M. J., Zhou, Q., Sun, Q., Schaaf, C. B., Southworth, J., Mishra, N. B., Gibbes, C., Bunting, E., Christiansen, T. B., & Crews, K. A. 2016. Dynamics of the Relationship between NDVI and SWIR32 Vegetation Indices in Southern Africa: Implications for Retrieval of Fractional Cover from MODIS Data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 37(6), 1476–1503.

Campagnolo, M. L., Sun, Q., Liu, Y., Schaaf, C. B., Wang, Z., & Román, M. O. 2016. Estimating the Effective Spatial Resolution of the Operational BRDF, Albedo, and Nadir Reflectance Products from MODIS and VIIRS. Remote Sensing of Environment, 175, 52–64.

Roy, D. P., Zhang, H. K., Ju, J., Gomez-Dans, J. L., Lewis, P. E., Schaaf, C. B., Sun, Q., Li, J., Huang, H., & Kovalskyy, V. 2016. A General Method to Normalize Landsat Reflectance Data to Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance. Remote Sensing of Environment, 176, 255–271.

Zoogman, P., Liu, X., Chance K., Sun, Q., Schaaf, C., Mahr, T., & Wagner T. 2016. A Climatology of Visible Surface Reflectance Spectra. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 180, 39-46.

Pahlevan, N., Sheldon, P., Peri, F., Wei, J., Shang, Z., Sun, Q., Chen, R.F, Lee, Z., Schaaf, C.B., Schott, J.R., & Loveland, T. 2016. Calibration/validation of Landsat-Derived Ocean Colour Products in Boston Harbour. ISPRS-International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 1165-1168.



Calders, K., Newnham, G., Armston, J., Disney, M. I., Schaaf, C., & Paynter, I. 2015. Chapter 2.10 Terrestrial Lidar for Forest Monitoring. In A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with deforestation, gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation. GOFC-GOLD Report version COP21-1. (GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, Wageningen University, The Netherlands).

Newnham, Glenn J., John D. Armston, Kim Calders, Mathias I. Disney, Jenny L. Lovell, Crystal B. Schaaf, Alan H. Strahler, and F. Mark Danson. 2015.  "Terrestrial laser scanning for plot-scale forest measurement." Current Forestry Reports 1, no. 4: 239-251.

O’Brien, Patrick, Ellen M. Douglas, and Crystal Schaaf. 2015. "Examining Water Use Regimes of Suburban Watersheds at Annual and Subannual Timescales." Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 21, no. 1: 05015012.

Sütterlin, M., C. B. Schaaf, R. Stöckli, Q. Sun, F. Hüsler, C. Neuhaus, and S. Wunderle. 2015. "Albedo and reflectance anisotropy retrieval from AVHRR operated onboard NOAA and MetOp satellites: Algorithm performance and accuracy assessment for Europe." Remote Sensing of Environment 168: 163-176.

Liu, L., Liang, L., Schwartz, M. D., Donnelly, A., Wang, Z., Schaaf, C. B., & Liu, L. 2015. Evaluating the potential of MODIS satellite data to track temporal dynamics of autumn phenology in a temperate mixed forest. Remote Sensing of Environment, 160, 156-165.

Liu, C., Huang, H., Gong, P., Wang, X., Wang, J., Li, W., Li, C., Li, Z. Joint use of ICESat/GLAS and landsat data in land cover classification: A case study in Henan Province, China Article in Scopus, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing Volume 8, Issue 2, 1, February 2015, Pages 511-522.

Hancock, S., Armston, J., Li, Z., Gaulton, R., Lewis, P., Disney, M., Danson, F. M., Strahler, A., Schaaf, C., Anderson, K., & Gaston, K. J. 2015. Waveform lidar over vegetation: An evaluation of inversion methods for estimating return energy. Remote Sensing of Environment, 164, 208-224.

Wang, D., Liang, S., He, T., Yu, Y., Schaaf, C., & Wang, Z. 2015. Estimating daily mean land surface albedo from MODIS data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.

Burakowski, E.A., Ollinger, S.V., Lepine, L., Schaaf, C.B., Wang, Z., Dibb, J.E., Hollinger, D.Y., Kim, J., Erb, A., & Martin M. 2015. Spatial Scaling of Reflectance and Surface Albedo Over a Mixed-Use, Temperate Forest Landscape During Snow-Covered Periods. Remote Sensing of Environment 158, 465-477.

Douglas, E. S., Martel, J., Li, Z., Howe, G., Hewawasam, K., Marshall, R. A., Schaaf, C. L., Cook, T. A., Newnham, G. J., Strahler, A., & Chakrabarti, S. 2015. Finding Leaves in the Forest: The Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidar. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE, 12(4), 776–780.




Kala, J., Evans, J. P., Pitman, A. J., Schaaf, C. B., Decker, M., Carouge, C., Mocko, D., and Sun, Q. (2014) Implementation of a soil albedo scheme in the CABLEv1.4b land surface model and evaluation against MODIS estimates over Australia, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2121-2140,

Ghimire, B., C. A. Williams, J. Masek, F. Gao, Z. Wang, C. Schaaf, and T. He (2014), Global albedo change and radiative cooling from anthropogenic land cover change, 1700 to 2005 based on MODIS, land use harmonization, radiative kernels, and reanalysis, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 9087–9096, doi:10.1002/2014GL061671.

Gao, F., He, T., Wang, Z., Ghimire, B., Shuai, Y., Masek, J., Schaaf, C. & Williams, C. (2014) Multiscale climatological albedo look-up maps derived from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer BRDF/albedo products. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing. 083532-1, Vol. 8.

Pahlevan, N., Lee, Z., Wei, J., Schaaf, C., Schott, J., & Berk, A. (2014) On-orbit characterization of OLI (Landsat-8) for applications in aquatic remote sensing. Remote Sensing of Environment. 154, 272-284.

Kala, J., Evans, J., Pitman, A., Schaaf, C., Decker, M., Carouge, C., Mocko, D. & Sun, Q. (2014) Implementation of a soil albedo scheme in the CABLEv1.4b land surface model and evaluation against MODIS estimates over Australia. Geoscience Model Developments. 7, 2121-2140.

Gao, F., He, T., Masek, J., Shuai, Y., Schaaf, C., Wang, Z. (2014) Angular Effects and Correction for Medium Resolution Sensors to Support Crop Monitoring. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 10.1109

Liang. L, Schwatz, M., Wang, Z., Gao, F., Schaaf, C., Tan, B., Morisette, J., & Zhang, X. (2014) A Cross Comparison of Spatiotemporally Enhanced Springtime Phenological Measurements From Satellites and Ground in a Northern U.S. Mixed Forest. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 52, 12, 7513-7526.

Shuai, Y., Masek, J., Gao, F., Schaaf, C. & He, T. (2014) An approach for the long-term 30-m land surface snow-free albedo retrieval from historic Landsat surface reflectance and MODIS-based a priori anisotropy knowledge. Remote Sensing of Environment, 152, 467-479.

Roy, D. P., Wulder, M. A., Loveland, T. R., Allen, R. G., Anderson, M. C., Helder, D., ... & Zhu, Z. (2014) Landsat-8: Science and product vision for terrestrial global change research. Remote Sensing of Environment, 145, 154-172.

Proud, S. R., Zhang, Q., Schaaf, C., Fensholt, R., Rasmussen, M. O., Shisanya, C., ... & Sandholt, I. The Normalization of Surface Anisotropy Effects Present in SEVIRI Reflectances by Using the MODIS BRDF Method. IEEE Transactions on Gescience and Remote Sensing, 52, 6026-6039, 10.1109/TGRS.2013.2294602.

Kuusinen, N., Tomppo, E., Shuai, Y., & Berninger, F. (2014). Effects of forest age on albedo in boreal forests estimated from MODIS and Landsat albedo retrievals. Remote Sensing of Environment, 145, 145-153.

Jiao, Z., Hill, M. J., Schaaf, C. B., Zhang, H., Wang, Z., & Li, X. (2014). An Anisotropic Flat Index (AFX) to derive BRDF archetypes from MODIS. Remote Sensing of Environment, 141, 168-187.

Wang, Z., C.B. Schaaf, A.H. Strahler, M.J. Chopping, M.O. Román, Y. Shuai, C.E. Woodcock, D.Y. Hollinger, D.R. Fitzjarrald, Evaluation of MODIS albedo product (MCD43A) over grassland, agriculture and forest surface types during dormant and snow-covered periods, Remote Sensing of Environment, 140, 60-77, 2014.

Wright, P., M. Bergin, J. Dibb, B. Lefer, F. Domine, T. Carman, C. Carmagnola, M. Dumont, Z. Courville, C. Schaaf, Z. Wang, Comparing MODIS daily snow albedo to spectral albedo field measurements in Central Greenland, Remote Sensing of Environment, 140, 118-129, 2014.

H. Tang, M. Brolly, F. Zhao, A.H. Strahler, C.L. Schaaf. Deriving and validating Leaf Area Index (LAI) at multiple spatial scales through lidar remote sensing: A case study in Sierra National Forest, CA, Remote Sensing of Environment, 2014.




Yang, X., Schaaf, C., Strahler, A., Kunz, T., Fuller, N., Betke, M., ... & Lovell, J. (2013). Study of bat flight behavior by combining thermal image analysis with a LiDAR forest reconstruction. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 39(s1), S112-S125.

Justice, C.O., M.O. Roman, I.Csiszar, E.F. Vermote, R.E. Wolfe, S.J. Hook, M. Friedl, Z. Wang, C.B. Schaaf, T. Miura, M. Tschudi, G. Riggs, D.K. Hall, A.I. Lyapustin, S. Devadiga,C. Davidson, E.J. Masuoka, Land and cryosphere products from Suomi NPP VIIRS:Overview and status , Journal of Geophysical Research:Atmospheres, Vol. 118, 1-13,doi:10.1002/jgrd.50771, 2013.

Polgar, C.A., R. B. Primack, J. S. Dukes, C. Schaaf, Z. Wang, S. S. Hoeppner, Tree leaf out response to temperature: comparing field observations, remote sensing, and a warming experiment, International Journal of Biometeorology, DOI 10.1007/s00484-013-0718-z, 2013.

Stroeve,J., J. E. Box, Z. Wang, C. Schaaf, A. Barrett, Re-evaluation of MODIS MCD43 Greenland albedo accuracy and trends , Remote Sensing of Environment, 138, 199-214, 2013.

Huang, X., Z. Jiao, Y. Dong, H. Zhang, X. Li, Analysis of BRDF and Albedo Retrieved by Kernel-Driven Models Using Field Measurements, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 6(1), 149-161, 2013.

Zhao, F., X. Yang, A. H. Strahler, C. B. Schaaf, T. Yao, Z. Wang, M. O. Román, C. E. Woodcock, W. Ni-Meister, D. L.B. Jupp, J. L. Lovell, D. S. Culvenor, G. J. Newnham, H. Tang, R. O. Dubayah, A comparison of foliage profiles in the Sierra National Forest obtained with a full-waveform under-canopy EVI lidar system with the foliage profiles obtained with an airborne full-waveform LVIS lidar system , Remote Sensing of Environment, 136, 330-341 , 2013.

Shuai,Y., C. Schaaf, X. Zhang, A. Strahler, D. Roy, J. Morisette, Z. Wang, J. Nightingale, J. Nickeson, A. D. Richardson, D. Xie, J. Wang, X. Li, K. Strabala, J. E. Davies, Daily MODIS 500 m reflectance anisotropy direct broadcast (DB)products for monitoring vegetation phenology dynamics , International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34,5997 - 6016, 2013.

Yang,X., A. H. Strahler, C. B. Schaaf, D. L.B. Jupp, T. Yao, F. Zhao, Z. Wang, D. S. Culvenor, G. J. Newnham, J. L. Lovell, R. O. Dubayah, C. E. Woodcock, W. Ni-Meister, Three-dimensional forest reconstruction and structural parameter retrievals using a terrestrial full-waveform lidar instrument (Echidna) , Remote Sensing of Environment, 135, 36-51, 2013.

Grasso,L., D. W. Hillger, C. B. Schaaf, Z. Wang, R. Brummer, R. DeMaria, Use of MODIS 16-day albedos in generating GOES-R advanced baseline imager imagery , Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 7 (1), 073584, doi: 10.1117/1.JRS.7.073584, 2013.

Román,M. O., C. K. Gatebe, Y. Shuai, Z. Wang, F. Gao, J. Masek, T. He, S. Liang, C. B. Schaaf, Use of In Situ and Airborne Multiangle Data to Assess MODIS- and Landsat-Based Estimates of Directional Reflectance and Albedo , IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 51(3), 1393-1404, 10.1109/TGRS.2013.2243457, 2013.

Yang, Y., A. Marshak, S. Palm, Z. Wang, C. Schaaf, Assessment of Cloud Screening with Apparent Surface Reflectance in Support of the ICESat-2 Mission , IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 51(2), 1037-1045, 10.1109/TGRS.2012.2204066,2013.

Zhang, Q., C. Schaaf,K. C. Seto, The Vegetation Adjusted NTL Urban Index: A new approach to reduce saturation and increase variation in nighttime luminosity, Remote Sensing of Environment, 129, 32-41, 2013.

Hui, F., Cheng, X., Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., Ye, Y., Wang, X., Li, Z., Wang, K., Zhan, Z., Guo, J., Huang, H., Li, X., Guo, Z., & Gong, P. (2013). An Improved Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica. Science China Earth Sciences, 56(1), 1–12.




Zhao, F., A. H. Strahler, C. L. Schaaf, T. Yao, X. Yang, Z. Wang, M. A. Schull, M. O. Román, C. E. Woodcock, P. Olofsson, W. Ni-Meister, D. L.B. Jupp, J. L. Lovell, D. S. Culvenor, G. J. Newnham, Measuring gap fraction, element clumping index and LAI in Sierra Forest stands using a full-waveform ground-based lidar, Remote Sensing of Environment, 125, 73-79, 2012.

Cescatti, A., B. Marcolla, S. K. S. Vannan, J. Y. Pan, M. O. Román, X. Yang, P. Ciais, R. B. Cook, B. E. Law, G. Matteucci, M. Migliavacca, E. Moors, A. D. Richardson, G. Seufert, C. B. Schaaf, Intercomparison of MODIS albedo retrievals and in situ measurements across the global FLUXNET network, Remote Sensing of Environment, 121, 323¨C334, 2012.

Chopping, M., M. North, J. Chen, C. B. Schaaf, J. B. Blair, J. V. Martonchik, M. A. Bull, Forest Canopy Cover and Height From MISR in Topographically Complex Southwestern US Landscapes Assessed With High Quality Reference Data, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 5, 44-58, 2012.

He, L., J. M. Chen, J. Pisek, C. B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, Global clumping index map derived from the MODIS BRDF product, Remote Sensing of Environment, 119, 118-130, 2012.

Wang, Z., C. B. Schaaf, M. J. Chopping, A. H. Strahler, J. Wang, M. O.Román, A. V. Rocha, C. E. Woodcock,Y. Shuai, Evaluation of Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow albedo product (MCD43A) over tundra, Remote Sensing of Environment, 117, 264-280, 2012.

Douglas, E.S., Strahler, A., Martel, J., Cook, T., Mendillo, C., Marshall, R., Chakrabarti, S., Schaaf, C., Woodcock, C., Li, Z., Yang, X., Culvenor, D., Jupp, D., Newnham, G., & Lovell, J. (2012). DWEL: A Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidar for ground-based forest scanning. In  (pp. 4998-5001): IEEE Proceedings, International Geosciences And Remote Sensing Symposium 2012, Munich, Germany, 22-27 July, 2012.

Wang, X., Cheng, X., Li, Z., Huang, H., Niu, Z., Li, X., & Gong, P. (2012). Lake Water Footprint Identification from Time-Series ICESat/GLAS Data. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE, 9(3), 333–337.




O'Halloran, T., B. Law, M. L. Goulden, Z. Wang, J. Barr, C. Schaaf, M. Brown,J. D. Fuentes, M. Gockede, A. Black, V. Engel, Radiative forcing of natural forest disturbances, Global Change Biology, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02577.x, 2011.
ScienceDaily Research News:

Jiao, Z., C. Woodcock, C. B. Schaaf, B. Tan, J. Liu, F. Gao, A. Strahler, X. Li, J. Wang, Improving MODIS land cover classification by combining MODIS spectral and angular signatures in a Canadian boreal forest, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 37, 1-20, 2011.

Hill, M. J., M. O. Román, C. B. Schaaf, Dynamics of vegetation indices in tropical and subtropical savannas defined by ecoregions and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS) land cover, Geocarto International, 1-39, DOI:10.1080/10106049.2011.626529.

Shuai, Y., J. G. Masek, F. Gao, C. B. Schaaf, An algorithm for the retrieval of 30-m snow-free albedo from Landsat surface reflectance and MODIS BRDF, Remote Sensing of Environment, 115, 2204-2216, 2011.

Yao, T., X. Yang, F. Zhao, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, D. Jupp, J. Lovell, D. Culvenor, G.Newnham, W.Ni-Meister,C. B. Schaaf,C. Woodcock, J. Wang, X. Li, A. H. Strahler, Measuring forest structure and biomass in New England forest stands using Echidna ground-based lidar, Remote Sensing of Environment, 115, 2965¨C2974, 2011.

Román,M. O., C. K. Gatebe, C. B. Schaaf, R. Poudyal, Z. Wang, M. D. King, Variability in surface BRDF at different spatial scales (30 m - 500 m) over a mixed agricultural landscape as retrieved from airborne and satellite spectral measurements , Remote Sensing of Environment, 115, 2184-2203, 2011.

Chopping, M., C. B. Schaaf, F. Zhao, Z. Wang, A. W. Nolin,G. G. Moisen,J. V. Martonchik, M. Bull, Forest structure and aboveground biomass in the southwestern United States from MODIS and MISR, Remote Sensing of Environment,115,2943¨C2953, 2011.

Hill, M., M. O. Román, C. B. Schaaf,L. Hutley, C. Brannstrom, Characterizing vegetation cover in global savannas with an annual foliage clumping index derived from the MODIS BRDF product , Remote Sensing of Environment,115,2008-2024, 2011.

Zhao, F., X. Yang, M. A. Schull, M. O. Román,T. Yao, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, D. L. B. Jupp, J. L. Lovell, D. S. Culvenor, G. J. Newnham, A. D. Richardson, W. Ni-Meister, C. L. Schaaf, C. E. Woodcock, and A. H. Strahler Measuring effective leaf area index, foliage profile, and stand height in New England forest stands using a full-waveform ground-based lidar ,Remote Sensing of Environment,115,2954¨C2964, 2011.

Wang, Z., C. B. Schaaf, P. Lewis,Y. Knyazikhin, M. A. Schull, A. H. Strahler, T. Yao, R. B. Myneni, M. J. Chopping and J. B. Blair, Retrieval of canopy height using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, Remote Sensing of Environment, 115, 1595-1601, 2011.

Schaaf, C. B., Z. Wang and A. H. Strahler, Commentary on Wang and Zender-MODIS snow albedo bias at high solar zenith angles relative to theory and to in situ observations in Greenland, Remote Sensing of Environment, 115, 1296-1300, 2011.

Hill, Michael J., R. O. Miguel and C. B. Schaaf, Biogeography and Dynamics of Global Savannas: A Spatio-Temporal View, In Hill, Michael J. and Hanan, Niall P. eds. Ecosystem Function in Savannas: Measurement and Modeling at Landscape to Global Scales. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida) pp 3 - 37, 2011.

Schaaf, C. L. B., J. Liu, F. Gao and A. H. Strahler, MODIS Albedo and Reflectance Anisotropy Products from Aqua and Terra, In Land Remote Sensing and Global Environmental Change: NASA's Earth Observing System and the Science of ASTER and MODIS, Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing Series, Vol.11, B. Ramachandran, C. Justice, M. Abrams, Eds, Springer-Cerlag, 873 pp., 2011.

Gong, P., Li, Z., Huang, H., Sun, G., & Wang, L. (2011). ICESat GLAS Data for Urban Environment Monitoring. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, 49(3), 1158–1172.

Huang, H., Li, Z., Gong, P., Cheng, X., Clinton, N., Cao, C., Ni, W., & Wang, L. (2011). Automated Methods for Measuring DBH and Tree Heights with a Commercial Scanning Lidar. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 77(3), 219–227.

Wang, X., Cheng, X., Gong, P., Huang, H., Li, Z., & Li, X. (2011). Earth Science Applications of ICESat/GLAS: A Review. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 32(23), 8837–8864.




Back to all publications

Publications 2001 To 2010



Ni-Meister,W.,S. Lee, A. H. Strahler, C. E. Woodcock, C. B. Schaaf, T. Yao, K.J. Ranson, G. Sun, and J.B. Blair Assessing general relationships between aboveground biomass and vegetation structure parameters for improved carbon estimate from lidar remote sensing,Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, G00E11, doi:10.1029/2009JG000936, 2010.

Lyapustin, A.,C. K. Gatebe, R. Kahn, R. Brandt,J. Redemann, P. Russell, M. D. King, C. A. Pedersen, S. Gerland, R. Poudyal, A. Marshak, Y. Wang, C. B. Schaaf, D. Hall, and A. Kokhanovsky, Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS Spring-2008 Campaign, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 4359-4375, 2010.

Wang, K., S. Liang, C. B. Schaaf, and A. H. Strahler Evaluation of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer land surface visible and shortwave albedo products at FLUXNET sites, Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, D17107, doi:10.1029/2009JD013101, 2010.

Wang, Y.,A. Lyapustin, J. L. Privette, R. B. Cook, S.K. SanthanaVannan, E. F. Vermote, C.B. Schaaf,Assessment of biases in MODIS surface reflectance due to Lambertian approximation, Remote Sensing of Environment, 114,2791-2801, 2010.

Román, M. O., C. B. Schaaf, P. Lewis, F. Gao, G. P. Anderson, J. L. Privette, A. H. Strahler, C. E. Woodcock, M. Barnsley, Assessing the coupling between surface albedo derived from MODIS and the fraction of diffuse skylight over spatially-characterized landscapes, Remote Sensing of Environment, 114, 738-760, 2010.

Ju, J.,D. Roy, Y. Shuai, C. Schaaf, Development of an approach for generation of temporally complete daily nadir MODIS reflectance time series,Remote Sensing of Environment, 114, 1-20, 2010.

Gong, P., Niu, Z., Cheng, X., Zhao, K., Zhou, D., Guo, J., Liang, L., Wang, X., Li, D., Huang, H., Wang, Y., Wang, K., Li, W., Wang, X., Ying, Q., Yang, Z., Ye, Y., Li, Z., Zhuang, D., Chi, Y., Zhou, H., & Yan, J. (2010). China’s Wetland Change (1990–2000) Determined by Remote Sensing. Science China Earth Sciences, 53(7), 1036–1042.




Hall, D. K., S. V. Nghiem, C. B. Schaaf, N. E. DiGirolamo, and G. Neumann, Evaluation of surface and nearsurface melt characteristics on the Greenland ice sheet using MODIS and QuikSCAT data, J. Geophys. Res., 114, F04006, doi:10.1029/2009JF001287, 2009.

Schaaf, C.B., J. Cihlar, A. Belward, E. Dutton, and M. Verstraete, Albedo and Reflectance Anisotropy, ECV-T8: GTOS Assessment of the status of the development of standards for the Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables, ed., R. Sessa, FAO, Rome, May 2009.

Román, M. O., C. B. Schaaf, C. E. Woodcock, A. H. Strahler, X. Yang, R.H. Braswell, P. Curtis, K.J. Davis, D. Dragoni, M. L. Goulden, L. Gu, D. Y. Hollinger, T. E. Kolb, T.P. Meyer, J. W. Munger, J.L. Privette, A.D. Richardson, T.B. Wilson, S. C. Wofsy, The MODIS (Collection V005) BRDF/albedo product: Assessment of spatial representativeness over forested landscapes, Remote Sensing of Environment, 113, 2476-2498, 2009.

Rutan, D., F. Rose, M. Román, N. Manalo-Smith, C. Schaaf, and T. Charlock, Development and assessment of broadband surface albedo from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Clouds and Radiation Swath data product, J. Geophys. Res.,114, D08125, doi:10.1029/2008JD010669, 2009.

Zhang, X., M. Friedl and C. B. Schaaf, Sensitivity of vegetation phenology detection to the temporal resolution of satellite data,International Journal of Remote Sensing,30:8,2061-2074, 2009.

Liu, J., C. Schaaf, A. Strahler, Z. Jiao, Y. Shuai, Q. Zhang, M. Roman, J. A. Augustine, and E. G. Dutton, Validation of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) albedo retrieval algorithm: Dependence of albedo on solar zenith angle, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D01106, doi:10.1029/2008JD009969, 2009.




Moody, E. G., M. D. King, C. B. Schaaf, and S. Platnick, MODIS-Derived Spatially Complete Surface Albedo Products: Spatial and Temporal Pixel Distribution and Zonal Averages, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 47,2879-2894, 2008.

Strahler, A. H., D. L.B. Jupp, C. E. Woodcock, C. B. Schaaf,etc., Retrieval of forest structural parameters using a ground-based lidar instrument (Echidna), Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 34,Suppl.2,S426-S440, 2008.

Ni-Meister, W., A. H. Strahler, C. E. Woodcock, C. B. Schaaf, D. L. B. Jupp,etc., Modeling the hemispherical scanning, below-canopy lidar and vegetation structure characteristics with a geometric-optical and radiative-transfer model, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 34,Suppl.2,S385-S397, 2008.

Dickinson, R. E., L. Zhou, Y. Tian, Q. Liu, T. Lavergne, B. Pinty, C. B. Schaaf, and Y. Knyazikhin, A three-dimensional analytic model for the scattering of a spherical bush, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D20113, doi:10.1029/2007JD009564, 2008.

Hill,M.J., C. Averill, Z. Jiao, C. B. Schaaf, and J. D. Armston, Relationship of MISR RPV parameters and MODIS BRDF shape indicators to surface vegetation patterns in an Australian tropical savanna, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 34, Suppl.2, S247-S267, 2008.

Knobelspiesse, K. D., B. Cairns, B. Schmid, M. O. Román, and C. B. Schaaf, Surface BRDF estimation from an aircraft compared to MODIS and ground estimates at the Southern Great Plains site, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D20105, doi:10.1029/2008JD010062, 2008.

Coddington, O., K. S. Schmidt, P. Pilewskie, W. J. Gore, R. W. Bergstrom, M. Román, J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, J. Liu, and C. C. Schaaf, Aircraft measurements of spectral surface albedo and its consistency with ground-based and space-borne observations, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D17209, doi:10.1029/2008JD010089, 2008.

Stone, R. S., G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, E. Andrews, K. Loukachine, E. G. Dutton, C. Schaaf, and M. O. Román III, Radiative impact of boreal smoke in the Arctic: Observed and modeled, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 113, D14S16, doi:10.1029/2007JD009657, 2008.

Schaaf, C. L., J. Martonchik, B. Pinty, Y. Govaerts, F. Gao, A. Lattanzio, J. Liu, A. H. Strahler, and M. Taberner, Retrieval of Surface Albedo from Satellite Sensors,in Advances in Land Remote Sensing: System, Modeling, Inversion and Application, S. Liang, Ed., Springer, ISBN 978-1-4020-6449-4, page 219-243, 2008.

Roy, D.P., Ju, J., Lewis, P., Schaaf, C., Gao, F.,Hansen, M., Lindquist, E.,, Multi-temporal MODIS-Landsat data fusion for relative radiometric normalization, gap filling, and prediction of Landsat data, Remote Sensing of Environment,112:3112-3130, 2008.

Schaaf, C., Albedo and Reflectance Anisotropy, Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables for Climate Change Assessment, Mitigation and Adaptation., GTOS-52, Eds. R. Sessa and H. Dolman, FAO, Rome, 28-29, January 2008.

Liu,J., R. A. Melloh, C. E. Woodcock, R. E. Davis, T. H. Painter, C. McKenzie, Modeling the View Angle Dependence of Gap Fractions in Forest Canopies: Implications for Mapping Fractional Snow Cover Using Optical Remote Sensing, Journal of Hydrometeorology, doi: 10.1175/2008JHM866.1, 2008.

Shuai,Y., C. B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, J. Liu, Z. Jiao, Quality assessment of BRDF/albedo retrievals in MODIS operational system, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L05407, doi:10.1029/2007GL032568, 2008.

David L.B. Jupp, D.S. Culvenor, J.L. Lovell, G.J. Newnham, A.H. Strahler, and C.E. Woodcock, Estimating forest LAI profiles and structural parameters using a ground-based laser called Echidna,Tree Physiology ,doi:10.1093/treephys/tpn022, 2008.




Fang,H., S. Liang,H. Kim, J. R. Townshend,C. B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, and R. E. Dickinson Developing a spatially continuous 1 km surface albedo data set over North America from Terra MODIS productsJournal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, D20206, 2007.

Moody, E. G., M. D. King, C. B. Schaaf, D. K. Hall Northern Hemisphere five-year average (2000-2004) spectral albedos of surfaces in the presence of snow: Statistics computed from Terra MODIS land productsRemote Sensing of Environment 111 (2007) 337-345

Schaaf, C. B., The Sunlit Earth. In Our Changing Planet: The View from Space, M. D. King, C. L. Parkinson, K. C. Partington, and R. G. Williams, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 129-135, 2007.




Zhang,X., M. A. Friedl, C. B. Schaaf, Global vegetation phenology from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): Evaluation of global patterns and comparison with in situ measurements ,J. Geophys. Res., 111, G04017,doi:10.1029/2006JG000217,2006

Salomon, J., C. B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, F. Gao, Y. Jin, Validation of the MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo Retrievals Using Combined Observations from the Aqua and Terra Platforms, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. Vol. 44, No. 6, June 2006.

D. P. Roy, P. Lewis, C. B. Schaaf, S. Devadiga, and L. Boschetti, The Global Impact of Clouds on the Production of MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Model-Based Composites for Terrestrial Monitoring, IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 3, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2006.

Tsvetsinskaya,E.A., C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. H. Strahler, and R. E. Dickinson, Spatial and temporal variability in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer¨C derived surface albedo over global arid regions, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D20106, doi:10.1029/2005JD006772, 2006.




Baret, F., C. Schaaf, J. Morisette, J. Privette, Report on the Second International Workshop on Albedo Product Validation, Earth Observer, May/June, 2005.

Diner, D. J., B. H. Braswell, R. Davies, N. Gobron, J. Hu, Y. Jin, R. A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, N. Loeb, J.-P. Muller, A. W. Nolin, B. Pinty, C. Schaaf, G. Seizi and J. Stroeve, The value of multiangle measurements for retrieving structurally and radiatively consistent properties of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces, Remote Sens. Environ., 97(4), 495-518, 2005.

Gao, F., C. Schaaf, A. Strahler, A. Roesch, W. Lucht, and R. Dickinson, The MODIS BRDF/Albedo Climate Modeling Grid Products and the Variability of Albedo for Major Global Vegetation Types, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D01104, doi:10.1029/2004JD00519, 2005.

Liang X.-Z., M. Xu, W. Gao, K. Kunkel, J. Slusser, Y. Dai, Q. Min, P. R. Houser, M. Rodell, C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, Development of land surface albedo parameterization based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D11107, doi:10.1029/2004JD005579. 2005.

Moody, E. G., M. D. King, S. Platnick, C. B. Schaaf, and F. Gao, Spatially complete global spectral surface albedos: Value-added datasets derived from Terra MODIS land products, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 43, 144-158, 2005.

Myhre, G., Kvalevag, M.M. and Schaaf, C.B., Radiative forcing due to anthropogenic vegetation change based on MODIS surface albedo data set, Geophys. Res. Let. 32:L21410, doi:10.1029/2005GL024004 2005.

Stroeve, J., J. Box, F. Gao, S. Liang, A. Nolin, C. Schaaf, Accuracy Assessment of the MODIS 16-day Albedo Product for Snow: Comparisons with Greenland in situ Measurements, Remote Sens. Environ., 94, 46-60, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2004.09.001, 2005.

Wang Z., M. Barlage, X. Zeng, R. E. Dickinson, C. B. Schaaf, The solar zenith angle dependence of desert albedo, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L05403, doi:10.1029/2004GL021835. 2005.

Zhang X., M. A. Friedl, C. B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, Z. Liu, Monitoring the response of vegetation phenology to precipitation in Africa by coupling MODIS and TRMM instruments, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D12103, doi:10.1029/2004JD005263. 2005.




Liu,J., R. A. Melloh, C. E. Woodcock, R. E. Davis and E. S. Ochs, The effect of viewing geometry and topography on viewable gap fractions through forest canopies, Hydrological Processes, 18, 3595-3607,2004.

Roesch, A., C. Schaaf and F. Gao, Use of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer bidirectional reflectance distribution function products to enhance simulated surface albedos, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D12, doi: 10.1029/2004JD004552, 2004.

Roujean, J.-L., C. B. Schaaf, and W. Lucht, Fundamentals of bi-directional reflectance and BRDF modeling, in: Reflective Properties of Vegetation and Soil, editors: M. von Schoenmark, B. Geiger, H.P. Roeser, Wissenshaft und Technik Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 352pp., 105-120, 2004.

Tian, Y., R. E. Dickinson, L. Zhou, R. B. Myneni, M. Friedl, C. B. Schaaf, M. Carroll, and F. Gao, Land boundary conditions from MODIS data and consequences for the albedo of a climate model, Geophys. Res. Let., 31, doi:10.1029/2003GL019104, 2004.

Wang, Z., X. Zeng, M. Barlage, R. E. Dickinson, F. Gao, and C. Schaaf, Using MODIS BRDF and Albedo Data to Evaluate Global Model Land Surface Albedo, J. Hydrometeor., 5, 3-14, 2004.

Zhang, X., M. Friedl, C.B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, Climate controls on vegetation phenological patterns in northern mid- and high latitudes inferred from MODIS data, Global Change Biology, 10, 1133-1145, 2004.

Zhang, X., M. Friedl, C.B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, A. Schneider, The footprint of urban climates on vegetation phenology, Geophys. Res. Let., 31, L12209, doi:10.1029/2004GL020137, 2004.




Gao, F., C. B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, Y. Jin, and X. Li, Detecting vegetation structure using a kernel-based BRDF model, Remote Sens. Environ., 86(2), 198-205, 2003.

Jin, Y., C. B. Schaaf, C. E. Woodcock, F. Gao, X. Li, A. H. Strahler, W. Lucht, S. Liang, Consistency of MODIS surface BRDF/Albedo retrievals: 1. Algorithm performance, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D5), 4158, doi:10.1029/2002JD002803, 2003.

Jin, Y., C. B. Schaaf, C. E. Woodcock, F. Gao, X. Li, A. H. Strahler, W. Lucht, S. Liang, Consistency of MODIS surface BRDF/Albedo retrievals: 2. Validation, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D5), 4159, doi:10.1029/2002JD002804, 2003.

Oleson, K. W., G. B. Bonan, C. Schaaf, F. Gao, Y. Jin, and A. Strahler, Assessment of global climate model land surface albedo using MODIS data, Geophys. Res. Letters, 30(8), 1443, doi:10.1029/2002GL016749, 2003.

Zhang, X., M.A. Friedl, C.B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, J.C.F. Hodges, F. Gao, B. C. Reed, and A. Huete, Monitoring vegetation phenology using MODIS, Remote Sens. Environ., 84, 471-475. 2003.

Zhou, L., R.E. Dickinson, K. Ogawa, Y. Tian, M. Jin, T. Schmugge and E. Tsvetsinskaya, Relations between albedos and emissivities from MODIS and ASTER data over North African Desert, Geophys. Res. Letters, 30(20), 2026, doi:10.1029/2003GL018069, 2003.

Zhou, L., R. E. Dickinson, Y. Tian, X. Zeng, Y. Dai, Z.-L. Yang, C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, Y. Jin, A. Strahler, R. B. Myneni, H. Yu, W. Wu, and M. Shaikh, Comparison of seasonal and spatial variations of albedos from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Common Land Model, J. Geophys. Res., 108, D15, 4488, doi:10.1029/2002JD003326, 2003.



Friedl, M. A., D. K. McIver, J. C.F. Hodges, X. Y. Zhang, D. Muchoney, A. H. Strahler, C. E. Woodcock, et al. 2002. Global Land Cover Mapping from MODIS: Algorithms and Early Results. Remote Sensing of Environment 83 (1–2): 287–302.

Gao, Feng, Yufang Jin, Xiaowen Li, Crystal B. Schaaf, and Alan H. Strahler. 2002. Bidirectional NDVI and Atmospherically Resistant BRDF Inversion for Vegetation Canopy. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 40 (6): 1269–78.

Jin, Yufang, Feng Gao, Crystal B. Schaaf, Xiaowen Li, Alan H. Strahler, Carol J. Bruegge, and John V. Martonchik. 2002. Improving MODIS Surface BRDF/Albedo Retrieval with MISR Multiangle Observations. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 40 (7): 1593–1604.

Jin, Yufang, Crystal B. Schaaf, Feng Gao, Xiaowen Li, Alan H. Strahler, Xubin Zeng, and Robert E. Dickinson. 2002. How Does Snow Impact the Albedo of Vegetated Land Surfaces as Analyzed with MODIS Data? Geophysical Research Letters 29 (10): 12-1-12–14.

Liang, Shunlin, Hongliang Fang, Mingzhen Chen, Chad J. Shuey, Charlie Walthall, Craig Daughtry, Jeff Morisette, Crystal Schaaf, and Alan Strahler. 2002. Validating MODIS Land Surface Reflectance and Albedo Products: Methods and Preliminary Results. Remote Sensing of Environment 83 (1–2): 149–62.

Schaaf, Crystal B, Feng Gao, Alan H. Strahler, Wolfgang Lucht, Xiaowen Li, Trevor Tsang, Nicholas C. Strugnell, et al. 2002. First Operational BRDF, Albedo Nadir Reflectance Products from MODIS. Remote Sensing of Environment 83 (1–2): 135–48.

Tsvetsinskaya, Elena A., C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. H. Strahler, R. E. Dickinson, X. Zeng, and W. Lucht. 2002. Relating MODIS-Derived Surface Albedo to Soils and Rock Types over Northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Geophysical Research Letters 29 (9): 67-1-67–4.

Tsvetsinskaya, Elena A., Bella I. Vainberg, and Elena V. Glushko. 2002. An Integrated Assessment of Landscape Evolution, Long-Term Climate Variability, and Land Use in the Amudarya Prisarykamysh Delta. Journal of Arid Environments 51 (3): 363–81.


Back to all publications

Publications 2000 and Earlier


Gao, F., Li, X., Strahler, A., & Schaaf, C. (2000). Evaluation of the Li transit kernel for BRDF modeling. Remote Sensing Reviews19(1-4), 205-224.

Lucht, W., & Roujean, J. L. (2000). Considerations in the parametric modeling of BRDF and albedo from multiangular satellite sensor observations. Remote Sensing Reviews18(2-4), 343-379.

Lucht, W., Schaaf, C., Strahler, A. H., & D’Entremont, R. (2000). Remote Sensing of Albedo using the BRDF in Relation to Land Surface Properties. In M. M. V. et Al. (Ed.), Observing Land from Space: Science, Customers and Technology (pp. 175–186). Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Lucht, W., Schaaf, C. B., & Strahler, A. H. (2000). An Algorithm for the Retrieval of Albedo from Space Using Semiempirical BRDF Models. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 38(2), 977–998.

Lucht, W., & Lewis, P. (2000). Theoretical noise sensitivity of BRDF and albedo retrieval from the EOS-MODIS and MISR sensors with respect to angular sampling. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21(1), 81–98.

Lucht, W., Hyman, A. H., Strahler, A. H., Barnsley, M. J., Hobson, P., & Muller, J. P. (2000). A comparison of satellite-derived spectral albedos to ground-based broadband albedo measurements modeled to satellite spatial scale for a semidesert landscape. Remote Sensing of Environment, 74(1), 85–98.

Hu, B., Lucht, W., Strahler, A. H., Barker Schaaf, C., & Smith, M. (2000). Surface albedos and Angle-Corrected NDVI from AVHRR Observations of South America. Remote Sensing of Environment, 71(2), 119–132.

Barnsley, M. J., Hobson, P. D., Hyman, A. H., Lucht, W., Muller, J. P., & Strahler, A. H. (2000). Characterizing the Spatial Variability of Broadband Albedo in a Semidesert Environment for MODIS Validation. Remote Sensing of Environment, 74(1), 58–68.

Friedl, M. A., Woodcock, C., Gopal, S., Muchoney, D., Strahler, A. H., & Barker-Schaaf, C. (2000). A note on procedures used for accuracy assessment in land cover maps derived from AVHRR data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21(5), 1073–1077.

Friedl, M. A., Muchoney, D., Mciver, D., Gao, F., Hodges, J. C. F., & Strahler, A. H. (2000). Characterization of North American land cover from NOAA-AVHRR data using the EOS MODIS land cover classification algorithm. Geophysical Research Letters, 27(7), 977–980.



d'Entremont, R. E., C. L. Barker Schaaf, W. Lucht, and Alan H. Strahler, Retrieval of red spectral albedo and bidirectional reflectance using AVHRR HRPT and GOES satellite observations of the New England region, J. Geophys. Res., D-104, 6229-6239, 1999.

Diner, D.J, G.P Asner, R. Davies, Y. Knyazikhin, J-P. Muller, A. Nolin, B. Pinty, C.B. Schaaf, and J. Stoeve, New directions in Earth observing: Scientific applications of multi-angle remote sensing, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80,2209-2228, 1999.

Hu, B., W. Lucht, and A. H. Strahler, The interrelationship of atmospheric correction of reflectances and surface BRDF retrieval: A sensitivity study, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 37, 724-738, 1999.

Li, X., A.H. Strahler and M.A. Friedl, A conceptual model for effective directional emissivity from nonisothermal surfaces, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 37, 2508-2517, 1999.

Li, X., J. Wang, A. Strahler, Apparent reciprocity failure in directional reflectance of structured surface, Progress in Natural Science, 10, 747-752, 1999.

Liang, S., A. H. Strahler, and C. W. Walthall, Retrieval of land surface albedo from satellite observations: A simulation study, J. Appl. Meteorol., 38, 712-725, 1999.

Ni,W., X. Li, C. E. Woodcock, M. R. Caetano, and A. H. Strahler, An Analytical Hybrid GORT Model for Bidirectional Reflectance Over Discontinuous Plant Canopies,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, 37, 987, 999 1999.

J. S. BORAK and A. H. STRAHLER, Feature selection and land cover classi?cation of a MODIS-like data set for a semiarid environment,Int. J. Remote Sensing,20, 919-938, 1999.

Gopal,S., C. E. Woodcock, and A. H. Strahler, Fuzzy Neural Network Classification of Global Land Cover from a 1 degree AVHRR Data Set,REMOTE SENS. ENVIRON, 67,230-243, 1999.

Friedl,M.A., C. E. Brodley, and A. H. Strahler, Maximizing Land Cover Classification Accuracies Produced by Decision Trees at Continental to Global Scales,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, 37, 969-977, 1999.




Abdelgadir A. A.,S. GOPAL,and A. H. Strahler, Forward and inverse modelling of canopy directional reflectance using a neural network,Int. J. Remote Sensing,19, 453-471,1998.

Christopher O. Justice, Eric Vermote, John R. G. Townshend, Ruth Defries, David P. Roy, Dorothy K. Hall, Vincent V. Salomonson, Jeffrey L. Privette, George Riggs,Alan Strahler,et al., The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): Land Remote Sensing for Global Change Research,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING,36,1228-1249,1998.

Lucht, W., Expected retrieval accuracies of bidirectional reflectance and albedo from EOS-MODIS and MISR angular sampling,Journal of Geophysical Research, 103,8763-8778, 1998.




Hu, B., W. Lucht, Li, X.,and A. H. Strahler, Validation of kernel-driven semiempirical models for the surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function of land surfaces, Remote Sens. Environ, 62, 201-214, 1997.

Liang,S., A. H. Strahler, X. Jin, and Q. Zhu, Comparisons of Radiative Transfer Models of Vegetation Canopies and Laboratory Measurements,REMOTE SENS. ENVIRON. 61,129-138, 1997.

W. Wanner,A. H. Strahler,B. Hu,P. Lewis,J.-P. Muller,X. Li,C. L. Barker Schaaf,and M. J. Barnsley, Global retrieval of bidirectional reflectance and albedo over land from EOS MODIS and MISR data: Theory and algorithm,JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH,102, D14,17143-17161, 1997.




Moody,A., S. Gopal,and A. H. Strahler, Artificial Neural Network Response to Mixed Pixels in Coarse-Resolution Satellite Data,REMOTE SENS. ENVIRON. 58,329-343,1996.

Abuelgasim,A.A., S. Gopal,J. R. Irons, and A. H. Strahler, Classification of ASAS Multiangle and Multispectral Measurements Using Artificial Neural Networks,REMOTE SENS. ENVIRON. 57,79-87, 1996.




Li,X., A. H. Strahler, and C. E. Woodcock, A Hybrid Geometric Optical-Radiative Transfer Approach for Modeling Albedo and Directional Reflectance of Discontinuous Canopies,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, 33,466-480, 1995.

Liang,S., A. H. Strahler, An analytic radiative transfer model for a coupled atmosphere and leaf canopy,JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, 100, D3, 5085-5094, 1995.

W. Wanner, X. Li, and A. H. Strahler, On the derivation of kernels for kernel-driven models of bidirectional reflectance,JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH,100,D10, 21077-21089, 1995.




Lambin,E.F. and A. H. Strahler, Change-Vector Analysis in Multitemporal Space: A Tool To Detect and Categorize Land-Cover Change Processes Using High Temporal-Resolution Satellite Data,REMOTE SENS. ENVIRON. 48,231-244,1994.

Liang, S and A. H. Strahler, Four-stream solution for atmospheric radiative transfer over a non-Lambertian surface,APPLIED OPTICS,33,5745-5753, 1994.

Abuelgasim,A.A., and A. H. Strahler, Modeling Bidirectional Radiance Measurements Collected by the Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS) over Oregon Transect Conifer Forests,REMOTE SENS. ENVIRON. 47,261-275,1994.

Wu,Y. and Alan H. Strahler, Remote Estimation of Crown Size, Stand Density, and Biomass on The Oregon Transect ,Ecological Applications, 4(2),299-312,1994.

Liang,S. and A. H. Strahler, Retrieval of Surface BRDF from Multiangle Remotely Sensed Data,REMOTE SENS. ENVIRON. 50, 18-30,1994.

Schaaf,C.B., X. Li, and A. H. Strahler, Topographic Effects on Bidirectional and Hemispherical Reflectances Calculated with a Geometric-Optical Canopy Model ,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING,32,1186-1193, 1994.

Schaaf,C.B. and A. H. Strahler, Validation of Bidirectional and Hemispherical Reflectances from a Geometric-Optical Model Using ASAS Imagery and Pyranometer Measurements of a Spruce Forest ,REMOTE SENS. ENVIRON. 49,138-144,1994.




Lambin, E.F., Cashman, P., Moody, A., Parkhurst, B.H., Pax, M.H., and Schaaf, C. Barker, 1993: Agricultural production monitoring in the Sahel using remote sensing: Present possibilities and research needs. J. Environ. Management, 38, 301-322.

Liang,S. and A. H. Strahler, An Analytic BRDF Model of Canopy Radiative Transfer and Its Inversion,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING,31,1081-1092,1993.

Liang,S. and A. H. Strahler, Calculation of the Angular Radiance Distribution for a Coupled Atmosphere and Canopy,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING,31,491-502,1993.

Chen,R., D. L. B. Jupp, C. E. Woodcock, and A. H. Strahler, Nonlinear Estimation of Scene Parameters from Digital Images Using Zero-Hit Run-Length Statistics,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING,31,735-746,1993.

Schaaf,C.B. and A. H. Strahler, Solar Zenith Angle Effects on Forest Canopy Hemispherical Reflectances Calculated with a Geometric-Optical Bidirectional Reflectance Model,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING,31,921-927,1993.

Scuderi, L.A., Schaaf, C. Barker, Orth, K.U., and Band, L.E., 1993: Alpine treeline growth variability: Simulation using an ecosystem process model. Arctic and Alpine Research, 25, 175-182.




Li. X. and A. H. Strahler, Geometric-Optical Bidirectional Reflectance Modeling of the Discrete Crown Vegetation Canopy: Effect of Crown Shape and Mutual Shadowing,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING,30,276-292,1992.



Jupp, D. L. B. and A. H. Strahler, A Hotspot Model for Leaf Canopies ,REMOTE SENS. ENVIRON. 38,193-210,1991.

Shimada, I., Schaaf, C. Barker, Thompson, L., and Mosley-Thompson, E., 1991: Cultural impacts of severe droughts in the prehistoric Andes: application of a 1500-year ice core precipitation record. World Arch., 22 247-270.

Sun, G., D. S. Simonett. and A. H. Strahler, A Radar Backscatter Model for Discontinuous Coniferous Forests ,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING.29,639-650,1991.




Strahler,A.H., and D. L. B. Jupp Modeling Bidirectional Reflectance of Forests and Woodlands Using Boolean Models and Geometric Optics ,REMOTE SENS. ENVIRON. 34,153-166,1990.

Albers,B.J., A. H. Strahler, X. Li, S. Liang and K. C. Clarke Radiometric Measurements of Gap Probability in Conifer Tree Canopies ,REMOTE SENS. ENVIRON. 34,179-192,1990.

Schaaf, C. B., J. M. Ward, H. S. Muench, R. P. d'Entremont, Robert P., M. K. Griffin, 1990: The Hemispheric Eighth Mesh Terrain Elevation and Geography Data Sets. Philips Lab Technical Report, DTIC-ADA231592.




D'Entremont, R. P., G. B. Gustafson, J. T. Bunting, M. K. Griffin, C. B. Schaaf, 1989: Comparisons between the RTNEPH (Real-Time Nephanalysis) and AFGL Cloud Layer Analysis Algorithms, Philips Lab. Environmental Research Paper, DTIC ADA216637.

Jupp,D.L.B., A. H. Strahler, and C. E. Woodcock Autocorrelation and Regularization in Digital Images II. Simple Image Models ,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING. 27,247-258,1989.




Jupp, D.L.B., A. H. Strahler, and C. E. Woodcock Autocorrelation and Regularization in Digital Images I. Basic Theory ,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING. 26,463-473,1988.

Franklin,J. and A. H. Strahler,Invertible Canopy Reflectance Modeling of Vegetation Structure in Semiarid Woodland ,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING. 26,809-825,1988.

Li,X. and A. H. Strahler,Modeling the Gap Probability Of a Discontinuous Vegetation Canopy ,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING. 26,161-170,1988.

Schaaf, C. Barker, Wurman, J. and R. M. Banta, 1988: Thunderstorm-producing terrain features. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 69, 272-277.

Woodcock,C.E., A. H. Strahler, and D. L. B. Jupp,The Use of Variograms in Remote Sensing: I. Scene Models and Simulated Images ,REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT 25,323-348, 1988.

Woodcock,C.E., A. H. Strahler, and D. L. B. Jupp,The Use of Variograms in Remote Sensing: II. Real Digital Images ,REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT 25,349-379, 1988.




Banta, R. M. and C. Barker Schaaf, 1987: Thunderstorm genesis zones in the Colorado Rocky Mountains as determined by traceback of geosynchronous satellite images. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 463-476.

Woodcock,C.E. and A. H. Strahler,The Factor of Scale in Remote Sensing ,REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT 21,311-332,1987.




FRANKLIN,J., T. L. LOGAN, C. E. WOODCOCK, AND A. H. STRAHLER,Coniferous Forest Classification and Inventory Using Landsat and Digital Terrain Data ,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, GE-24, 139-149,1986.

Li,X. and A. H. Strahler,Geometric-Optical Bidirectional Reflectance Modeling of a Conifer Forest Canopy ,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, GE-24, 906-919,1986.

Strahler,A.H., C. E. Woodcock, and J. A. Smith, On the Nature of Models in Remote Sensing ,REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT 20, 121-139, 1986.




Li,X. and A. H. Strahler,Geometric-Optical Modeling of a Conifer Forest Canopy ,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, GE-23, 705-721, 1985.




Strahler, A.H., The Use of Prior Probabilities in Maximum Likelihood Classification of Remotely Sensed Data ,REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT, 10, 135-163, 1980.




Strahler, A.H., Binary Discriminant analysis: A New Method for Investigating Species- Environment Relationships ,Ecology, 39(1), 108-116, 1978.

Strahler, A.H., Response of woody species to site factors of slope angle, rock type, and topographic position in Maryland as evaluated by binary discriminant analysis, Journal of Biogeography, 5,403-423, 1978.

Back to all publications


Professor Crystal Schaaf’s Lab

School for the Environment
University of Massachusetts Boston
100 Morrissey Blvd.
Boston, MA 02125